Class 646 Case Study 3 Liberty University

Note: All School of Law course numbers are preceded by the letter L in the myUDC (Banner) registration system.

Required Courses
Civil Procedure I102
Civil Procedure II107
Constitutional Law I201
Constitutional Law II205
Contracts I104
Contracts II109
Criminal Law103
Criminal Procedure108
Law & Justice106
Lawyering Process I100
Lawyering Process II110
Legal Reasoning I111
Legal Reasoning II112
Legal Research100R
Moot Court450
Professional Responsibility203
Property I204A
Property II227A
Torts I101A
Torts II231A
Core Courses
Administrative Law208
Business Organizations I206
Business Organizations II207
Commercial Law/UCC I210A
Conflict of Laws219
Family Law214A
Federal Courts216
Federal Tax/Tax I (Personal)212
Wills and Estates209
Community Development Law Clinic906/956
Criminal Law Clinic920/921
General Practice Clinic940/941
Housing and Consumer Law Clinic900/950
Immigration & Human Rights Clinic910/912
Juvenile & Special Education Law Clinic902/952
Legislation Clinic905/955
Low Income Taxpayer Clinic901/951
Whistleblower Protection Clinic903A/953A
Independent, Extended & Elective Clinics973-999
Elective Courses
Advanced Contracts (Federal Procurement)404B
Advanced Criminal Procedure233
Advanced Legal Research406
Advanced Legal Writing241
Alternative Dispute Resolution235A
Asylum & Refugee Law647
Civil Rights in the 21st Century Externship660/670
Civil Rights in the 21st Century Seminar680
Criminal Justice, Social Justice, and Community Justice243
Death Penalty Law/Wrongful Convictions244
Demonstration Law Seminar461
Education Law254
Employment Discrimination245
Entertainment Law Seminar232S
Environmental Law230
Environmental Law & Policy230P
Forensic Evidence222
Gender & Sexual Orientation258A
Gender & Sexual Orientation Seminar258
Health Law Seminar257
Housing Law Seminar & Practicum263
Immigration Law223
Immigration Law Practicum223P
Immigration Law Seminar223S
Independent Study500
Intellectual Property Law232A
Intellectual Property Law Seminar232C
International Business229
International Human Rights Seminar234A
International Law Seminar224
Introduction to Critical Race Theory646
Labor Law225
Law Office Management228
Legal & Bar Success Foundations342
Legal Drafting644
Mass Communications Seminar242
Non-profit Law239
Perspectives on Law & Literature: I702
Perspectives on Social Justice: Supporting Underrepresented Service Members701A
Perspectives on Social Justice Seminar701T
Race and the Law Seminar251
Race and the Law251A
Race and the Law Practicum251P
Reproductive Rights Seminar260S
Rights of Persons with Disabilities Seminar252A
Service-Learning Practicum & Seminar360
Social Security Disability643
State & Local Government Law236
System Change: Theory & Practice602
Systems Change: Be a Changemaker645
Tax Practice & Procedure220
Trial Advocacy300
Veterans Benefits Law249A
Whistleblower Law262
Women and the Law Seminar253S

Required Courses

See the Student Handbook for complete degree requirements.
100Lawyering Process I (2 credits)
This course begins with an intensive look at the skills entering students need to learn faster and more effectively in the law school classroom. Students learn about the legal system, the lawyer's role in that system, case briefing, case and statutory analysis, case synthesis, class preparation and note taking. In addition, students complete several writing assignments that enable them to receive early critical feedback. The course provides an in-depth understanding of legal reasoning, research and writing.
100RLegal Research (1 credit)
This course introduces students to basic principles and processes of researching statutory, administrative and case law at both federal and state levels. Students learn how to locate relevant law using both print and electronic formats, including use of legal encyclopedias, treatises, periodicals, and finding aids.
101ATorts I (3 credits)
This is a survey of basic tort law, including topics such as intentional torts, negligence, strict liability, and causation.
102Civil Procedure I (3 credits)
This course focuses on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure with particular attention to pleading, motions to dismiss and summary judgment, remedies, discovery, sanctions, and the effect of prior judgments on litigation.
103Criminal Law (3 credits)
In this course, students are introduced to topics that include mens rea and actus reus, the elements of common law felonies and misdemeanors, and the principal defenses to criminal charges.
104Contracts I (3 credits)
The required first semester Contracts I course covers key common law concepts including offer and acceptance, bargained for exchange, enforcement of promises on the theories of reliance and unjust enrichment, defenses to contract, conditions and terms, anticipatory repudiation and breach, and remedies. The course also introduces students to core competencies such as analyzing cases and applying narrow holdings to new facts.
106Law & Justice (1 credit)
This intensive one-week course is offered prior to the start of first year classes. The course addresses issues of justice, poverty law, affirmative action and other critical issues. At the conclusion of the Law & Justice Course, students provide 40 hours of community service in group or individual projects, under the supervision of faculty advisors.
107Civil Procedure II (3 credits)
This course focuses on the Federal Rules of Civil and Appellate Procedure as they relate to appeals as well as joinder of parties and causes of action in complex litigation. It also focuses on jurisdiction and the meaning of completed adjudication. Prerequisite: Civil Procedure I.
108Criminal Procedure (3 credits)
This course introduces students to the individual rights created by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments to the U. S. Constitution and to the enforcement of those rights by means of the exclusionary rule.
109Contracts II (3 credits)
In the second semester, Contracts II introduces students to analysis of statutory law through intensive study and application of Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code, the primary law governing contracts for the sale of goods in the United States. The course also touches on Article 2A (Leases) and the Convention on the International Sale of Goods. Prerequisite: Contracts I.
110Lawyering Process II (2 credits)
This course continues the development of the legal reasoning, research and writing skills introduced in Lawyering Process I. Frequent writing exercises emphasize the kinds of research and writing tasks lawyers must do every day, such as client letters, opinion letters, office memoranda, pleadings, motions, contracts and briefs. Students also are given opportunities to develop their advocacy skills through the argument of a simulated motion exercise and their bargaining skills through a simulated negotiation exercise. Prerequisite: Lawyering Process I.
111Legal Reasoning I (2 credits)
Legal Reasoning is a first year, second semester course that explicitly examines the analytic processes needed to solve legal problems. The course focuses on components of legal argument and reasoning, including formulation, articulation, and synthesis of rules from statutes and cases; formulation of legal theories; categorization of facts in terms of concepts or language of the law; application of law and facts using analogical and deductive reasoning; and using legal principles, policies, and conventions to make persuasive arguments. This course is required for first year students with a grade point average below 2.5, but may be taken as an elective by others if seats are available.
112Legal Reasoning II (2 credits)
Legal Reasoning II is designed to help students refine and apply their research, analytical and legal writing skills. The course uses a problem-solving approach built around the substantive knowledge learned in first year courses. Weekly oral and written assignments include doctrinal outlines; short bar exam type essays; practice exam answers; and a short research memorandum. Class attendance and participation account for a significant portion of the grade. Specific competencies that will be addressed include Legal Analysis, Written and Oral Competency, and Legal Research. This course is required for second-year students with a cumulative first year grade point average below 2.5. If space is available, it is open to other upper level students with the permission of the professor. Interested students should attend the first class session.
201Constitutional Law I (4 credits)
This course is designed to introduce students to the structure, text, history and application of the U.S. Constitution. The course covers the nature and scope of judicial review, legislative and executive power, and the Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.
202Evidence (4 credits)
This course surveys key provisions of the Federal Rules of Evidence, including relevance, hearsay, impeachments, and authentication of documents. It also looks at common law privileges. The course emphasizes conveying to students a functional knowledge of the rules of evidence.
203Professional Responsibility (2 credits)
This course examines the ethical problems implicit in the role of the legal profession in a democratic society governed by the rule of law. Topics include the lawyer-client relationship, duties to the court, conflicts of interest, confidentiality, delivery of legal services, and disciplinary rules and mechanisms. Students may take this course as a second- or third-year student.
204AProperty I (3 credits)
This required course is an introduction to the law of property. Topics include the acquisition of property, possessory estates, future interests, co-ownership, and marital interests.
205Constitutional Law II (4 credits)
In this course, students will examine the sources, history and applications of the major areas of constitutional law which involve our "rights and liberties." These areas of law include Equal Protection, Substantive Due Process and fundamental liberty interests, Procedural Due Process, and the First Amendment. The course uses a combination of methods, including a modified Socratic method, lectures, and class discussions; classes involve recitations by students of fact patterns, holdings, and implications of assigned case readings in give and take interchanges with the instructor.
227AProperty II (3 credits)
This required course is an introduction to the law of property. Topics include leasehold estates, landlord tenant law, land transactions, recording systems, and the law of servitudes, zoning, and eminent domain. Prerequisite: Property I.
231ATorts II (3 credits)
Torts II continues the basic survey of liability for civil wrongs other than breach of contract. Students will study the reasons why and the circumstances under which courts will hold manufacturers and merchants liable for harms caused by products and services. The survey will also include study of such torts as misrepresentation, invasion of privacy, and civil rights violations. This area of law is tested on many bar examinations. Prerequisite: Torts I.
450Moot Court (2 credits)
This course covers the appellate process and continues the development of legal research, analysis, and writing skills begun in the Lawyering Process courses. Students are provided with a case on appeal and prepare a written appellate brief for one side. At the end of the semester, they present an oral argument in that case. Prerequisites: Lawyering Process I and II.
LAB1L Lab (0 credits)
1L Lab is a required non-credit, pass-fail course for first-semester 1L students. This course links the oral, written and legal analysis skills associated with the core competencies to the substantive law that is taught in first year courses. The lab sessions focus on skills needed for success in law school, including class preparation (reading and briefing cases and statutes, strategies for understanding legal terminology, note-taking and the importance of reflection; and exam preparation (synthesizing, preparing an outline and a problem-solving attack plan, and written communication skills such as responding to essay questions).

Core Courses

Students are required to choose at least three courses from the following Core courses. See Section 3.4.2 of the Student Handbook for details.
206Business Organizations I (3 credits)
This course focuses primarily on the organization, operation, and dissolution of unincorporated business entities. It covers the basic legal and economic principles governing the law of agency-principal relationships, partnerships, limited partnerships, joint ventures and limited liability companies. NOT a prerequisite for Business Organizations II.
207Business Organizations II (3 credits)
This course continues the study of business relationships begun in Business Organization I. It focuses on the basic legal and economic principles related to the organization, operation, and dissolution of corporations, with a significant emphasis on issues and problems of closely held corporations and federal corporate law issues. This area of law is tested on many bar examinations. Business Organizations I is not a prerequisite, but is recommended.
208Administrative Law (3 credits)
This course examines the role of the administrative branch of government in the legal system. In particular, it explores the nature and scope of the power of administrative agencies and the restraints on administrative power imposed by the Constitution, statutes and the common law. Topics include the delegation of power to administrative agencies, administrative investigations, the right to be heard, formal and informal decision making processes and procedures, administrative adjudication and rule-making, and judicial review of administrative actions.
209Wills and Estates (3 credits)
This course examines the rules governing intestate and testate distribution of property and the execution, alteration and revocation of wills. The course also covers the creation of both public and private trusts, rights of beneficiaries, and responsibilities of fiduciaries. Students also are exposed to the modern alternatives of the living trust and the living will. Prerequisite: Property I.
210ACommercial Law: Secured Transactions and Payment Systems (4 credits)
This course presents an integrated study of the law governing modern commercial transactions under the Uniform Commercial Code, with emphasis on non-sales related UCC subjects. It covers a variety of topics, including Articles 3 and 4 (negotiable instruments) and Article 9 (Secured Transactions). This course does not cover the sales-related subjects examined in Contracts II. This area of law is tested on many bar examinations. Prerequisites: Contracts I and II.
212Federal Tax/Tax I (Personal) (3 credits)
There are a multitude of circumstances that cause one to ask, what are the tax consequences of this transaction? Many of the questions and answers have social, economic, and political considerations. In this course, the tax system is studied with emphasis on basic concepts rather than computations. Significant attention is given to the public policy served by various provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. The course covers the taxation of individuals, including income, exemptions, deductions, gains and losses. Emphasis is given to reading the Internal Revenue Code and Regulations and applying the code to real life.
214AFamily Law (2 credits)
This course examines relationships of adults and children from political, economic, and social welfare perspectives. Students will analyze a wide variety of subject areas with a view towards understanding the balance between state involvement and the individual's or family's rights to privacy in the areas of domestic relations. The course surveys developments in the law relating to marriage, divorce, child custody and support, alimony, division of property, and other issues affecting familial relationships. In addition course materials address the relationships between children, adults and the state concerning domestic violence, child neglect and abuse, adoption, the foster care system, kinship care, reproductive rights, nontraditional family relationships, and new biomedical technologies. This area of law is tested on many bar examinations.
216Federal Courts (3 credits)
This course addresses the constitutional and statutory provisions--as well as the jurisdictional doctrines and concepts--that shape and limit the role played by the federal courts in the American legal system. Subjects covered include the origins of federal judicial review, Congressional power to curtail federal jurisdiction, limitations on the ability of the federal courts to enjoin state court proceedings, and requirements for U.S. Supreme Court review of lower federal and state court judgments. This area of law is tested on many bar examinations.
217Remedies (3 credits)
This course is organized as a case survey and study of various remedies available to those who have suffered wrongs for which others are held civilly liable. Students examine a range of topics: monetary remedies; the various means of measuring money damages; injunctive, declaratory remedies; and restitutionary claims and remedies. The course covers the availability of such remedies in a variety of tort, contract, and property contexts.
219Conflict of Laws (3 credits)
Three main areas are covered in this course: 1) jurisdiction; 2) choice of law; and (3) enforcement of judgments. Jurisdiction addresses the authority of the forum court to issue binding decisions against or for out-of-state parties. Choice of law concerns determination of which state's or country's laws must apply in a multi-state or international dispute. Finally, enforcement of judgment deals with the effect of a judgment rendered in one jurisdiction beyond the boundaries of that jurisdiction. These subjects are tested on many bar examinations and are also of practical importance in civil litigation practice.


Students, please see Clinic Guidelines for each clinic's prerequisites, conflict of interest and student practice rules.
900/950Housing and Consumer Law Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
This clinic introduces students to civil and administrative litigation in the housing and consumer areas. Students act as counsel in administrative forums. Advanced students may appear in court. Students must be eligible for court certification.
901/951Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
The Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (LITC) provides students with hands-on experience representing taxpayers in disputes with the IRS regarding federal income tax liability before the IRS and U.S. Tax Court. Students represent low-income D.C. residents who are referred to the clinic by the IRS and non-profit and other advocacy organizations because the clients have no right to court-appointed attorneys and cannot afford to hire private counsel. The tax controversies include such matters as those in which the IRS challenges either the client's tax return or the failure of the client to file a return. The most common controversies involve a taxpayer who has claimed a right to the Earned Income Tax Credit or a low-income spouse whom the IRS is pursuing based upon the failure of the other spouse to pay taxes. The classroom work will include coverage of relevant tax doctrine. LITC faculty will provide doctrinal material and address the practical aspects of tax controversy cases in order to prepare students to interview and counsel clients and to represent them effectively in these cases. Participation as a student in the LITC will be good preparation for a poverty law practice, a general law practice, or future work in tax law.
902/952Juvenile & Special Education Law Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
Students in the Juvenile & Special Education Law Clinic represent children and parents or guardians primarily in delinquency and special education cases, supplementing traditional delinquency representation with advocacy to address the special education needs of its clients. Clinic students handle all aspects of advocacy and representation, including drafting documents, developing and implementing case plans, negotiating, and handling administrative hearings and courtroom representation.
903A/953AWhistleblower Protection Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
The Whistleblower Protection Clinic (formerly called the Government Accountability Project Clinic) introduces students to the law and skills required to provide representation to government and private employees who are threatened with retaliation for speaking out against fraud, waste, mismanagement, abuse of authority, environmental dangers, and public health and safety problems. The clinic involves students in work on administrative hearings, trials, appeals, congressional testimony, and media involvement.
905/955Legislation Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
The Legislation Clinic trains students to be effective legislative lawyers, who are skilled in working with text, law, policy, and politics to help achieve legislative or regulatory reform and develop thoughtful public policy. The Clinic’s seminar focuses on relevant substantive law, processes (such as how legislation is enacted and regulations are promulgated on the local and federal levels), ethics (such as system reform obligations, lobbying restrictions, and working with groups), and skills (such as client counseling, oral advocacy, legislative research, and drafting policy materials like talking points, bills, or white papers). The field experience complements the seminar component by providing students the opportunity to represent the community and community-based non-profit organizations under faculty supervision on employment, gender, and other social justice policy projects.
906/956Community Development Law Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
The Community Development Law Clinic (CDLC) focuses on transactional (or non-litigation based) advocacy skills. The clinic's clients are organizations involved in affordable housing development, small business development and community services, such as childcare. In their field work, students will serve in the capacity of corporate counsel to the clients, advising and assisting them in a wide range of concerns, which may include choice of entity, organizational structure, tax status, fiduciary duty of corporate officers and directors, regulatory compliance, government programs, financing and contractual relations. The clinic emphasizes transactional-based lawyering skills, including problem solving, client interviewing and counseling, negotiation, legal research and legal drafting. Trial practice skills are not addressed in this clinic. The clinic will also cover substantive law and policy related to the subject matter presented by the cases.

In the small business component of the clinic, students represent small D.C. business enterprises in need of free legal services. Students advise clients on business structures, prepare articles of incorporation, bylaws, advise clients regarding basic tax law, zoning, licensing requirements; and mediate business disputes.
910/912Immigration & Human Rights Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
Participants in the Immigration and Human Rights Clinic will learn about the specialized area of immigration law and other areas of law (such as employment law and civil rights law) that frequently concern representation of noncitizens and immigrants’ rights more generally. Students will represent clients under the supervision of the clinic director and the graduate student instructor. In addition to attending the required twice-weekly seminar, students will meet individually with their supervising attorney and participate in case rounds.

Students may have the opportunity to represent clients at interviews with immigration officials and/or to litigate in Immigration Court, the Board of Immigration Appeals, state court, United States District Court or the United States Court of Appeals, depending on the type of case assigned and the scope of representation. Assignments may include applications for Cancellation of Removal; challenges to indefinite detention, via either administrative review petitions or the filing of writs of habeas corpus; bond hearings for detained noncitizens (Joseph hearings); appeals of removal orders for detained noncitizens by the Immigration Court to the Board of Immigration Appeals and/or the Circuit Courts of Appeals; representation of low-wage immigrant workers with employment related issues, such as failure to receive minimum wage and unemployment compensation denials; and creating and conducting "Know Your Rights” presentations for noncitizen residents of the District of Columbia.
920/921Criminal Law Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
The Criminal Law Clinic is a one-semester clinic in which students participate in D.C. Law Students in Court Criminal Division, a unique consortium program with students from D.C. area law schools participating. Students in the Criminal Division represent defendants in misdemeanor cases in the District of Columbia Superior Court and juveniles charged with all but the most serious offenses.

Under the guidance and supervision of experienced trial attorneys, students are responsible for all aspects of client representation such as conducting fact investigation and legal research, writing and arguing motions, engaging in pretrial discovery, trying cases, negotiating plea agreements and assisting clients with probation revocations, where applicable. Through reading assignments, mock hearings, reflection, and actual representation, students learn how to develop a case theory and the skills needed for outstanding representation.
940/941General Practice Clinic (7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
The General Practice Clinic is a one-semester clinic in which student attorneys represent low-income clients in such areas as family law, health, public benefits, and wills. Student attorneys use a range of legal skills on behalf of clients in settings that may include administrative tribunals and trial and appellate courts in the District of Columbia. Student attorneys represent low-income clients in two-person or three-person teams.

All students attend a seminar, which covers topics such as client-centered representation, interviewing, theory of the client, fact investigation, counseling, and negotiation. Student attorneys will share developments and issues in their cases with other students during case rounds.
973-999Independent, Extended & Elective Clinics (1-7 credits) (ALWR Opportunity*)
Independent, Extended & Elective Clinics for one or more credits may be arranged based upon completion of an Elective/Extended Clinic Form and approval by the clinic supervisor and Associate Dean for Experiential & Clinical Programs. Tuition for any Summer Term Elective Clinics will be assessed on a per credit basis. Elective Clinics are in addition to the mandatory Clinics I and II and do not satisfy UDC Law's two-clinic requirement. Students should refer to the Student Handbook regarding enrollment of additional/non-required clinic credits.

Elective Courses

Elective courses may not be offered each year. See Section 3.4.2 of the Student Handbook for more information.
220Tax Practice & Procedure (2 credits)
The course is designed to develop analytical, advocacy and communication skills in order to represent clients who are involved in federal tax controversies. The topics include the organizational structure of the IRS, access to information, rulemaking, filing of returns and the statute of limitations, the examination and appeals process, the judicial process including the Tax Court and refunds, penalties, interest and additions to tax, collection matters, and the 1998 Restructuring Act.

The methodology will be lecture, and class discussion of court cases and problems assigned. The discussions will focus on the application of concepts and theories to practical real-world situations.
222Forensic Evidence (3 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
The objective of the course is to go beyond the rudimentary rules covered in the required survey course on the law of evidence in order to provide students with a more intensive focus on science and the legal process and to give them more in-depth knowledge of the scientific methodologies that have become a regular feature of current-day civil and criminal litigation, as well as the evidentiary principles that govern the use of scientific technologies in the courtroom. Click here for a detailed course description (in .pdf).
223Immigration Law (3 credits)
This course covers basic immigration law through the casebook method. Interwoven with the casebook approach is a substantial amount of lecturing devoted to the practical aspects of practicing immigration law. Historical perspectives relating to policies and legislation are provided. Depending on the semester, students enrolled in Immigration Law may have the option of enrolling in an additional one-credit practicum.
223PImmigration Law Practicum (1 credit)
The Immigration Law Practicum is available to a limited number of students enrolled in the Immigration Law course. The goal is to allow students to gain practical experience applying the legal principles they learn in the classroom. To supplement students’ understanding of immigration law, students will attend a half-day orientation in addition to a professional training each month.

Each student participating in the practicum will have at least one assignment in each of the following areas: intake and interviewing, preparing applications, and research and writing. Over the course of the semester, students will spend an average of 2-3 hours each week assisting clients with immigration matters, including conducting intake, collecting evidence and preparing applications, preparing clients for their hearings, interviewing clients for personal statements, and drafting legal memoranda and court briefs. Students may also accompany the managing attorney to immigration hearings as appropriate.

The immigration law practicum offers students an excellent opportunity to apply their classroom knowledge of immigration law while providing service to low-income immigrant residents of Washington, DC. Enrollment in the practicum portion of the Immigration Law course is limited.
223SImmigration Law Seminar (2 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
This seminar provides a survey of immigration law to encourage critical thinking about what our immigration policies should be. Topics are presented primarily from a practitioner's perspective to provide a concrete understanding of the immigration process. These issues concern not only whom we should welcome but whom we should expel and the procedures by which the government seeks to remove them. Students will complete this seminar with an understanding of nonimmigrant visas, family-based and employment-based immigration benefits, and naturalization. Additional focus will be placed on humanitarian immigration programs such as asylum, the U.S. Refugee Program, and trafficking-related benefits. The syllabus and discussions may be adjusted to respond to current events, such as legislative developments regarding immigration reform, and the expressed interests of the students. The readings, exercises, and discussions are also designed to provide background and to generate ideas for the writing of an original paper. This paper will provide the student with an opportunity to undertake research, engage in critical legal thinking, analysis, and drafting. The completion of a paper, which can be certified for the Research and Legal Analysis Writing Requirement (RALWR), is a goal of the seminar.
224International Law Seminar (2 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
This course will examine the nature and sources of international law, the law of treaties, the role of international law in municipal law, international dispute settlement, the status of individuals and states in international law, and the role of the United Nations and international organizations.
225Labor Law (3 credits)
Students will attain a basic familiarity with the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). Emphasis will be placed on the legal concepts that underlie the main provisions of the Act.
228Law Office Management (2 credits)
This course is designed to help soon-to-be solo practitioners and attorneys in smaller firms, bridge the gap between studying law and practicing law. The class is designed to cultivate proficiency in two practical areas of attorney development, which are typically learned over time rather than formally taught: (A) how to actually practice law, and (B) how to build and manage a law practice. The course covers topics such as how to get started, where to locate a law firm office, how to get your office equipped, how to secure clients, how to set fees, and detailed information about the nitty-gritty of running a small firm. While particularly relevant to solo practitioners and associates at small firms, the concepts discussed in this course will benefit new attorneys in all types of private and public sector organizations.
229International Business (3 credits)
This course focuses on the study of investor state arbitration, as the preferred method of business dispute resolution between foreign investors and sovereign states. We will pay attention throughout the semester to the universe of international claims that arise under the aegis of so-called bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and multilateral free trade agreements such as the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (known as the 1965 Washington Convention), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), and in particular to the bundle of rights and obligations that arise under these international instruments. Students shall be exposed to both the procedural and substantive aspects of the investor state arbitral process. From a policy perspective, moreover, this course shall also introduce the student to the complex geopolitical dynamics enveloping both “capital-exporting” and “capital-importing” countries. Students interested in public international law, international project finance transactions and business law in general will find this course of particular relevance to their studies.
230Environmental Law (3 credits)
The goals of this course are to expose students to (1) the creation and development of environmental justice theory; (2) the major legal issues in environmental justice advocacy; and (3) case studies revealing the pros and cons and successes and failures of various approaches to environmental justice advocacy.
230PEnvironmental Law & Policy (3 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
This course provides an introduction to the legal and policy issues of environmental protection and decision-making, including study of common law approaches to pollution control, and to the theories and approach to federal laws governing environmental regulation.

This is a survey course designed to give students a broad, practical understanding of some important federal environmental statutes and case law, and introduce students to the fascinating variety of important environmental challenges addressed by environmental laws, the difficult policy issues surrounding environmental problems, and the legal complexities of environmental regulatory and administrative schemes. Environmental laws can be extremely complex. No one person can master them all, nor can a single semester course provide a detailed review of all (or even very many) of the federal environmental statutes. This course, however, gives students the foundation by covering the "fundamentals” of environmental law. Students also will develop some critical analytical and research skills (such as analyzing problems and reading statutes) that are transferable to all areas of environmental law.
232A Intellectual Property Law (3 credits)
This course will focus on the four core types of intellectual property: copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. The course will provide an understanding of the fundamental principles of these bodies of law, their underlying policies, and their real-life applications. Technological advancements and public policy considerations that impact intellectual property law will also be discussed. The course also examines the substantive and procedural elements of infringement actions and their defenses.
232C Intellectual Property Law Seminar (2 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
This survey course will present an introduction to the four types of intellectual property: copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. The course will provide an understanding of the fundamental principles of the bodies of lP Law, their underlying policies, and their real-life applications. Technological advancements and public policy considerations that impact intellectual property law will also be discussed. The course will also examine the substantive and procedural elements of infringement actions and their defenses.
232S Entertainment Law Seminar (2 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
This course will focus on legal and business issues faced by individuals and organizations working in art and entertainment fields and creative industries. The class will address complex legal issues influencing the information economy, providing an overview of copyright, trademark, contract, First Amendment, and tort issues that affect artists and arts organizations.

Contracts I and II are prerequisites. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Students may work with the professor to write a seminar paper that will satisfy the Research and Legal Analysis Writing Requirement (RALWR).
233Advanced Criminal Procedure (2 credits)
This course follows the procedures of a criminal case from arrest to appeal. Particular emphasis is given to grand jury, joinder and severance, refinements of double jeopardy, and jury deliberation. Strongly recommended for third-year students only. This area of law is tested on many bar examinations. Prerequisites: Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure.
234AInternational Human Rights Seminar (2 credits) (RALWR Opportunity*)
This course will examine the nature and sources of international human rights law; its interrelation to international law; the law of treaties; international conventions and covenants; and the role of the United Nations and international organizations in the protection of human rights. The syllabus and discussions may be adjusted to reflect current events shaping international human rights such as the detention of foreign nationals or death penalty issues. The culminating exercise of this course will provide the student with the opportunity to conduct research, legal analysis, critical thinking, and the drafting of a paper, which can be certified for the Research and Legal Analysis Writing Requirement (RALWR).*
235AAlternative Dispute Resolution (3 credits)
This course will introduce and critically examine the theoretical and historical underpinnings of the major dispute resolution alternatives to conventional litigation and adjudication, with primary concentration on negotiation, mediation, and arbitration. Through the use of written and experiential exercises, simulations, and role-plays, students will be exposed to the skills and practices employed in the implementation of these processes. Issues of ethics, law and policy that are implicated and involved in the choice and implementation of these alternative processes also will be examined.
236State & Local Government Law: Legal and Policy Challenges in the Government of the District of Columbia (3 credits)
This course explores state and local government with an emphasis on the unique history and basis of the District of Columbia’s constitutional status, and the District’s still-evolving path to Home Rule. We will compare the role of states like Virginia and Maryland to the District’s various roles as a federal agency, federal territory, a state-, county-, and city-level government, and as a social laboratory for Congress. We will focus on debates concerning the lack of voting representation in Congress for the residents of the District and for those federal territories, and the related civil rights issues, international law issues, and implications for democracy. We will also examine attempts to achieve District statehood, including recent efforts to pursue the "Tennessee" plan, and the constitutionality of such proposals; debates over budget and legislative autonomy; whether and to what extent there should be federal control over local law enforcement issues; ethics and electoral reform in the District and in other state and local jurisdictions, and the role of state and local governments in enforcing criminal laws and in protecting consumers. Consistent class attendance and class participation is required. The course grade will be based 70% on the final exam and 30% on the preparation for and quality of students’ class participation.
239Non-profit Law (2 credits plus optional 1 credit practicum)

Case Study 1 2Case Study 1Donald is a 54 year old male who for the last 30 years has dealt with intense worry. His worry is not focused on a specific issue, but on everything from finances, work, family, health, and his home. Worry affects him enough that it has interfered with his daily life and has not been able to enjoy the basic pleasures in life. Key IssuesThe key issue that Donald is experiencing is first and foremost his health issues. Due to excessive worry Donald is concerned that he may develop health problems and worries that it is increasing the odds of bad things happening to him. He is experiencing shortness of breath, neck and back pain, sweating palms, dizziness, and heart palpitations which has led to a recent visit to the emergency room. The second issue that the client is dealing with is lack of sleep, which has caused dependence on over the counter sleep medication. The lack of sleep is also likely to be affecting his daily abilities to focus on anything else but worry. The third issue that the client has brought up is that in times of stress or hardship he deals with short bouts of depression, lasting for a few weeks at a time. The last key issue that Donald has expressed is the inability to find pleasure or joy in basic activities, which is affecting his family and social life. Treatment RationaleDonald would be most successful focusing his treatment on dealing with his excessive worry that is causing him health issues. I believe if the health issues are dealt with then the other issues will begin to fall in line once the worry is dealt with. Donald has been dealing with this fora few decades and is now seeking help, I believe he would do excellent with treatment and wouldbe willing to put in the work to see how his life could be changed. Donald would benefit from

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