Bernardino Baldi Essay

At the beginning of 1600 Baldi tried to publish some of his literary works, but only some of these were published, in Pavia and in Parma. In the meantime he became acquainted with Francesco Maria II Duke of Urbino, who commissioned him to write a biography of Federico of Montefeltro. The favor he had found with the Duke, and the problems caused by his position as abbot, provoked him in 1609 to leave Guastalla and take up employment at the Duke's court. In his new position he was charged with important tasks: in 1612, as ambassador of the Duke, he traveled to Venice to attend the ceremony of the proclamation of the new Doge. In those years some of his works were published in Germany, including his two books on Vitruvius – thanks to the intervention of Marcus Welser – and his translation of Hero's Belopoeica, the last of his works to be published while he was still alive. During the last years of his life Baldi wrote a biography of Guidobaldo I Duke of Urbino, who succeeded Federico of Montefeltro, and dedicated all his efforts to the composition of a massive geographical encyclopedia, which remained incomplete at the time his death on October 10, 1617. 

Bachet de Meziriac, Claude-Gaspar

1. Dates: Born: Bourg-en-Bresse, 9 October1581; Died: Bourg-en-Bresse, 26 February 1638; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Position. The honorable Jean Bachet, from an ancient and noble family, appeals judge in Bresse, the highest judicial official in the province, and counselor to Henry II. He died when Bachet was six. It seems clear that he grew up in wealthy circumstances
3. Nationality: Birth: Bourg-en-Bresse, France; Career: France; Death: Bourg-en-Besse, France
4. Education: Pad He had his early education in a house of the Jesuit order of the Duchy of Savoy. Probably studied in the Jesuit school in Lyons. Presumbly studied in Padua and may have been taught in a Jesuit School in Milan or Como.
5. Religion: Catholic. Bachet jointed the Jesuit order at the age of twenty. He did the premiere classe at Milan, but then fell ill and left the order (1602). 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics 
Contribution to the theory of numbers and to the field of mathematical recreations. He discovered a method of constructing magic squares.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means. 1602: After returning from Italy, he retired to his home in Bourg-en-Bresse, where he resolved to lead a life of leisure. He had a substantial estate, which yielded an annual rest of 5-6,000 livres at first, but increased to 8-10,000 upon the death of his elder brother. He married in 1612 and pursued a quiet home life thereafter. He was in Paris 1619-20.
8. Patronage: None; Bachet shunned public office. When he was in Paris, it was suggested that he be tutor to Louis XIII. He hastily departed from the court.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Member of the Académie Francaise, 1635.

C.G. Collet and Jean Itard,' Un mathematician humaniste: Claude-Gaspar Bachet de Meziriac, 1581-1638,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 1 (1947), pp.26-50. Roman d'Arrat, Dictionnaire de biographie Françcaise, 4, (Paris, 1948), col 1077-9. J.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommesillustres, 6, 1-12. 

Bachmann, Augustus Quirinus [Rivinus]

1. Dates:Born: Leipzig, Germany 9 December 1652; Died: Leipzig, Germany 20 December 1723; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: physician and professor; I assume he was prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German 
4. Education: University of Leipzig; M.A. University of Helmstaedt; M.D.; Secondary Means of Support: private tutors. Studied at University of Leipzig; l669 matriculated; 16 April 1670 Bachelor of philosophy; 15 Jan? 1671, M.A. Continued at University of Helmstaedt; 15 October 1676, MD. 
5. Religion: Lutheran. Wrote manuscript Vom Brauch und Missbrauch der Kirchen.
6. Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: pharmacology, astronomy. He wrote a couple of treatises; blinded himself by looking at sunspots.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; 1677, became University of Leipzig lecturer in medicine. 1688, became part of Leipzig medical faculty. 1691, appointed to U. of Leipzig chair of physiology, appointed to U. of Leipzig chair of botany. Made head of medical garden at University. 1701, became Senior der Facultaet. Became professor of pathology. 'Collegiat des Grossen Fursten Collegio.'; 'Decemvir bei der Academie.'; 1719, became professor of therapeutics. Made dean perpetual. (These positions were held in parallel.)
8. Patronage: Unknown; Nothing known, but there had to be influence behind those academic appointments.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Wrote on removing useless items from the pharmacopia.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London). Corresponded with John Ray. Not sure what the 'Collegio' and the 'Academie' in 1701 were; in the information we presently have there is no information beyond the name. Perhaps a history of Leipzig would have something. FRS, 1719.

ivinus,' Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 28, (Leipzig 1876), 708; 'Rivinus,' Zedler's Universal Lexicon, 31, (Leipzig-Halle, 1742, reprint Graz, 1961), columns 1855-9-AE27.G87 (stacks); A. von Haller, 'Rivinus,' Bibliotheca Botanica, 1, 551, para 651 - Z 5352 . H18 ; (1st ed in Lilly); Joecher, 'Rivinus,' Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, reprint Hildesheim 1961 (also see Adelung's supplement). L.-M. Dupetit-Thouars, Biographie Universelle ancienne etmoderne, new ed. 36, (ca. 1860) pp 90 - 94 (on his botanical work). Hirsching, F.C.G. (ed), Historisch-literarishes HandbuchBeruemter ..., (1794-1815). Jourdan, Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicales - BiographieMedicale, 8. Rabl, C. Geschichte der Anatomie an der Universitaet Leipzig (Leipzig, 1909).

Bacon, Francis

1. Dates: Born: London, 22 January1561; Died: near London, 9 April 1626 Datecode: Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Government Position; Sir Nicholas Bacon was Lord Keeper of the Seal under Elizabeth. Francis was the second son by his second wife; by his first wife Sir Nicholas had had six children, three of them sons. Wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England
4. Education: Cambridge University Trinity College, Cambridge University 1573-1575. Bacon left Cambridge without a degree. After three years in the residence of the English ambassador in Paris, he entered Gray's Inn. M.A. confered by Cambridge University, 1594-don't list.
5. Religion: Anglican. Bacon's mother was a thorough Calvinist. He adhered to the middle road of the Church of England, however, neither authoritarian nor sectarian. His religion was more formal than fervent.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Already at Cambridge, when he was not yet fifteen years old, Bacon fell out of love with Aristotelianism, which he saw as a philosophy that produced only disputes.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Lawyer; Patronage; Bacon was the fifth son of a wealthy father who provided well for the prior four but died before he arranged much for Francis. Bacon did inherite a small estate worth about L300. In 1601 he inherited the better estate of his brother Anthony (the other son of Bacon's mother), but Anthony had died heavily in debt. He married well at a crucial stage of his career (1607). He lived with the English ambassador in Paris, 1576-9. Enrolled at Gray's Inn, 1579. Barrister, 1584. Bencher, 1586. Although Bacon was never primarily a lawyer (except perhaps for the crown), he did practice some; around 1610 he was earning about L1200 per annum from his practice. Returned to Parliament in 1584, he served in Commons until his elevation to the peerage. Clerk of Star Chamber, 1589- . This was a governmental position with a salary of L1600 per annum. However, what Bacon received in 1589 was the reversion of the position when the current incumbent died. He had to wait nineteen years. Finally in 1608 he entered upon the income. Under Elizabeth Bacon functioned as a Queen's Counsel, but without an official appointment. He never got the appointment he desired and pursued under Elizabeth. From 1592 to 1601 Bacon was in Essex's service. Except for one well documented gift, Bacon's financial reward (as opposed to Essex's influence to promote his career) is unclear, or better wholly undocumented. Given Bacon's lack of income commensurate with his aspirations, I find it difficult to believe that he did not receive other rewards, in keeping with the universal practices of patronage, for the constant advice, formally composed, that he tendered to Essex, for the masques he composed, etc. With the accession of James things began to look up. He was appointed to the commission to consider union with Scotland, and became a King's Counsel with a pension of L60. Solicitor General, 1607, with salary of L1000. Appointed Attorney General, 1613. Appointed member of Privy Council, 1616. Appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 1617. Appointed Lord Chancellor, 1618-21. Created Lord Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Alban in 1621. Impeached for bribery in 1621.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Bowen (p.19) has a nice statement about the expectations that Bacon derived from his birth. They appear to have followed him all of his life and to have shaped his constant pursuit of royal patronage, which alone could fulfill his aspirations. See in connection with this the scene of splendor that followed his induction as Lord Keeper (Bowen, p. 152. See also pp. 160-2.) See also the comments on the splendor of his wedding. As a boy he was a favorite of Elizabeth, who delighted in his knowledge. His original appointments undoubtedly derived from the position and influence of his father, who died when he was eighteen. It is worth noting that the Queen admitted Bacon to the rank of Barrister early, in 1584. He dedicated his Maxims of the Law, one of his early compositions, which was not published at the time but did circulate in manuscript form, to Queen Elizabeth. Cecil, who was his uncle, aided his rise modestly; probably he obtained Bacon's appointment as clerk of Star Chamber. However, Cecil had his own son, Robert, to look out for, and it appears that the two Cecils viewed Bacon as competition. In fact Bacon did not thrive until the accession of James, and more after the death of Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury. At age 31 (1592, just before he entered Essex's service) Bacon wrote to Burghley seeking a position. The letter is one of the more eloquent statements of the needs driving patronage (as it related here also to Bacon's intellectual goals) that I have seen. See the poem by his brother Anthony about what was necessary to thrive at court. Bacon enjoyed the patronage of Essex, who headed a court faction opposed to the Cecils, 1592-1601. His brother Anthony was also in Essex's service. For Essex Bacon organized masques intended to influence the Queen (the arts used for propaganda). See especially his masque, Praise of Knowledge, as a statement of the importance of the intellectual. See also the entertainment at Gray's Inn, Christmas 1594, that Bacon composed in which the advantages of philosophy are extolled. And the masque he composed in 1595. (Along these lines see also the letters Bacon wrote to all the important people offering his services when Fames came to the throne.) Essex presented Bacon with a valuable property (worth about L1800) when he failed a second time (1595) to get him a position. Bacon's role in the trial of Essex is well known and has been the subject of much comment. See Bacon's own statement about it (1604) for evidence in regard to the obligations that the position of client entailed. After the succession of James, James aided his career and knighted him. Bacon dedicated The Advancement of Learning (1605) to James in an effort to gain patronage. He was a client of James' favorites, the Earl of Somerset and later Buckingham, and they aided his ascent of the ladder of state. See Bacon's composition Commentarius solutus, 1608, in which he set down, inter alia, the means by which to rise in the court. He dedicated the Instauratio magna (1620) to James, with a call to James to assume the role of patron of natural philosophy. James' letter in response said that Bacon could not have sent him a more acceptable gift. After Bacon's fall, James remitted his fine and continued his pension of L1200. See Bacon's letter to James when he was made Viscount St. Alban. It details the steps of James' patronage to him. As Lord Chancellor Bacon himself exercised broad powers of patronage in regard to appointments (Bowen, p. 154.) See the prayer that Bacon composed for himself after his condemnation in 1621-on his waste of the talents entrusted to him as he pursued false ends (partly quoted in Bowen, pp. 194-5). See also some of his Essays. Bacon continued to court the royal family and favorites after his fall. He dedicated the History of Henry VII to Prince Charles (one source says James) and the third edition of his Essays to Buckingham.
9. Technological Connections: None. 
10. Scientific Societies: Friends: Bishop Andrewes, Thomas Harriot, Sir W. Raleigh, L. Poe, J. Hammond. 

F.H. Anderson, Francis Bacon, His Career and His Thought, (Los Angeles, 1962). B1198 A48; J.G. Crowther, Francis Bacon, the First Statesman of Science, (London, 1960). Benjamin Farrington, Francis Bacon, Philosopher of Industrial Science, (New York, 1949). Catherine Drinker Bowen, Francis Bacon: The Temper of a Man, (Boston, 1963). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 1, 800-32.

Baglivi, Georgio

1. Dates: Born: Ragusa (Dubrovnik), 8 September 1668; Died: Rome, 15 June 1707; Datecode: Lifespan: 39
2. Father: Merchant; Biagio di Giorgio Armeno, a merchant. The family had come from Armenia; hence the name. The grandfather was a wealthy merchant and presumably the father was also. Both parents died when Baglivi was two, and with his younger brother he was reared for nine years by an uncle. When the uncle died, a peasant woman who had been a servant of the family, took over the two boys. Shortly thereafter the Jesuits became interested in them and educated them. When Giorgio was fifteen, a request came to the Jesuit school from Lecce, from a physician, Pietro Angeli Baglivi who had no son, for a boy of talent whom he would rear. The Jesuits sent Giorgio. The physician adopted him, gave him his name, instructed him in the elementary aspects of medicine, and saw to his university education. When all the factors are considered, it appears to me that he grew up in affluent circumstances, despite being orphaned.
3. Nationality: Birth: Republic of Dubrovnik (i.e, Jugoslav area); Career: Italy; Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: University of Naples, University of Salerno; M.D., P.D. Studied at the Jesuit College of Dubrovnik and College of Georgius. Also studied medicine in Naples. Got M.D. and Ph.D. at Salerno in 1688. After he completed his degree, Baglivi made the tour of various medical centers in Italy, especially Florence (where he studied with Bellini) and Bologna, where he studied with Malpighi).
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine. Among his publications on Physiology, Anatomy, and medicine are: De praxi medica, (Rome, 1696). De fibra motrice ac morbosa libri IV, (Rome, 1702). Baglivi advocated a rejection of speculation and a return to empirical hippocratic medicine based on clinical study. In fact he was not all that free of speculation himself, being a committed iatromechanist.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster; Baglivi began his medical practice with his adoptive father in Lecce. After 1688, he worked in hospitals in Padua, Venice, Florence, Bologna and other Italian Cities. At least one source says also the Netherlands and England. He settled briefly in Bologna as a pupil and assistant of Marcello Malpighi in 1691, living in Malpighi's house. When Malpighi became physician to the Pope, he took Baglivi with him, which was Baglivi's introduction to Rome. He lived in Malpighi's house until Malpighi's death. Baglivi became second physician to Pope Innocent XII in 1695, and later new Pope Clement XI confirmed his position at court and named him professor of anatomy in 1696 and professor of theoretical medicine at the Sapienza in 1701. He also gave private lessons, especially to foreigners. Stenn speaks of his flourishing practice, and Capparoni says that he was much in demand by the leading families of Rome. 
8. Patronage: Scientist; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Malpighi's promotion of Baglivi appears to have been crucial. Pope Innocent XII, see above. Pope Clement XI, see above.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Leopoldina; Friendship and correspondence with Lancisi, Bellini, Redi, Tozzi, Valsalva, Ramazzini, and Trionfetti; Royal Society (London); 1697; The Academia Naturae Curiosorum (the Leopoldina) and the Arcadia (a Roman society), 1699; The Accademia dei Fisiocritici (Siena), 1700. In Rome he frequented the Accademia fisico-mathematica that met in the hom of Msr. Ciampini. The Imperial Society of Augusta (of which I have not otherwise heard).

L. Munster, 'Nuovi contributi alla biografia di Giorgio Baglivi' Archivio storico Pugliese, 3, nos. 1-2, ( 1950). F. Stenn, 'Giorgio Baglivi' Annals of Medical History, 3rd ser., 3 (1941), pp.183-194. M.D. Grmek, 'Osservazioni sulle vita, opera . . . di Giorgio Baglivi,' Atti del XIV congresso internazionale di storia della medicina, 1 (Rome, 1960). Dizionario biografico degli italiani.  G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 51-4. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici enaturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28) 1, 57-60. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical.

Not Available and Not Consulted: F. Scalzi, Giorgio Baglivi, altre notizie biografiche, (Rome, 1889). M. Salomon, Giorgio Baglivi und seine Zeit, (Berlin, 1889). D. Schulian, The Baglivi Correspondence from the Library of Sir William Osler, (Ithaca, NY, 1974). 

Baier, Johann Jacob

1. Dates:Born: Jena, Germany, 14 June 1677; Died: Altdorf, Bavaria, 14 July 1735 (some say 11th July); Datecode: Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Professor and minister; Clearly prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German (Altdorf) Death: German (Altdorf)
4. Education: University of Jena; M.A., Ph.D., M.D. University of Halle; Secondary Means of Support: private tutor; University of Jena: matriculated 1693. Studied philosophy, classical languages, math, medicine, and 'natural science' Also studied medicine in Halle. 1700, MA, PhD, MD, from Jena.
5. Religion: Lutheran. Son of professor of Protestant theology at University of Jena.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Paleontology. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Medicine; Pharmacology; Something called 'oryctography' is also named.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; 1701, practiced medicine in Nuremberg. 1701,2,3? called to Regensberg as Stadt-Medicus. 1703, directed field hospital (War of Span. Succession). 1704, professor of medicine at Altdorf University. Twice elected rector of the University (dates?). 8 times dean of University (dates?). Eventually became Senior of the University. 1731, as a result of presidency of Leopoldina: Count Palatine. Imperial physician in ordinary (Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie describes this as an honorary title). Physician in ordinary to Graf of Ansbach. Administered Altdorf medical officer's district. Superintendant of Altdorf medical garden.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; See above consequences of Leopoldina presidency. No patron explictly named. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Some early medical research. 1703, directed field hospital.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Lp 1699-1701, visited northern Germany spoke to various scholars, looked at collections and libraries. Wrote books about Altdorf faculty and members of the Leopoldina. 1701? became member of Nuremberg Collegium medicum. 1708, became member of Leopoldina. Served as adjunct to Leopoldina. 1729, Director of Leopoldina.
1730 (1731?), chosen president of Leopoldina.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 3, (Leipzig 1876). ; ; 

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, (reprint Hildesheim 1961) - (reference room). Hirsch, A. Biographishes Lexikon der hervoragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker, (1929) - Z 6658 .B615 (reference room). Hamberger & Meusel, Das gelehrte teutschland [sic], (Augs. 1796 - 1834) - Z 2230 . H19 (Stacks). J. Ch. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Handwoerterbuch zu den exakten Wissenschaften, (Leipzig, 1863) - Z 7404 . P7 (Chem Lib). Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach, 'Johann Jakob Baier, einer der ersten deutschen Palaeontologen, ein Beispiel der Willkuer des Nachruhmes,' Natur und Volk, 75/76 (1946), 25-31 - Q 49 .S4 (Bio Lib). Various microprint works of Baier. Bruno von Freyberg, '250 Jahre geologische Forschung in Franken', Geologishce Blaetter for Nordost-Bayern und angrenzende Gebiete, 8 (1958), 34-43. 'Einfuehrung' (in Baiers wissenschaftliches Lebenswerk), in Erlanger geologishe Abhandlungen, 29 (1958), 7-12. 'Memoria viri perillustris, magnifici excellentissimeidque domini Joanni Jacobi Baieri', in Acta physico-medica Academia Caesareae Leopoldina - Carolinae Naturae Curiosorium, 4, Appendix, Biographies, (1737), 35-48. F. Hoefer (ed), Nouvelle Biographie Generale, 4, 1859. F. Ferchl, Chemisch-Pharmazeutiches Bio- und Bibliographicon, Mittenwald (1938). Johann August Vocke, Geburts- und Todten-Almanch Ansbachischer Gelehrten, Schriftsteller und Kuenstler, (1796-97). Georg Andreas Will, Nuernbergishes Gelehrten-Lexicon, (1755-1802).

Baillou, Guillaume de

1. Dates: Born: Paris, ca 1538; Died: Paris, 1616; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Engineer. His father was a famous mathematician and architect. A noble family which possessed an estate at Nogent-le- Rotrou. (Hazon mentions the estate, but says nothing about nobility.) It would be hard to separate the estate from affluence.
3. Nationality: Birth: Paris, France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: University of Paris; M.D. B.A., Paris, 1568; M.D., Paris, 1570. After studying at the University of Paris, where he concentrated especially in Latin, Greek, and Philosophy, he qualified in succession for the baccalaureate and the doctors degrees.
5. Religion: Catholic. His son entered a monastery. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; During the many epidemics in Paris between 1570-1579, he developed the idea of ephemerides. As the first epidemiologist since Hippocrates, he left nice descriptions of plague, of measles, and of diphtheria.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Became physician in 1570. Became dean of the faculty of medicine in 1586 He taught humanities initially and was later associated with the faculty of medicine, serving eventually as dean for a biennium beginning 1580. He continued to teach for forty-six years. He practiced medicine, refusing to leave his practice in order to become physician to the Dauphin. However, in 1601 he did become physician ordinaire to Henri IV. Baillou was especially known for treating children.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; A. Guilliar, president of the Parlement and Councillor of State, let Baillou be educated with his own children at his expense. Henry IV invited him to be physician to the Dauphin, but Baillou declined. However he did later become physician ordinaire to Henri IV.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: None Known.

E.W.Goodhall, 'A French Epidemiologist of the 16th century' Annals of Medical History, 7 (1935), 409-427. 'G. Baillou, Clinician and Epidemiologist' Journal of American Medical Association, 195 (1966), 957. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres de la Faculté de Medecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 72-4. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: A.Cheraeu, 'Baillou' in Dictionnaire encyclopedique des sciences medicals, 8, (Paris, 1878). Rene Moreau, life of Baillou at the beginning of Baillou's works.

Baldi, Bernadino

1. Dates: Born: Urbino, 5 June 1553; Died: Urbino, 10 October 1617; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Unknown; Francesco Baldi. Scharloncini says that Baldi was born to noble partents. All in all, including the silence of Mazzuchelli, I think Scharloncini's 'noble' is an honorific adjective rather than an explicit statement of fact. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Urbino, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Urbino, Italy
4. Education: Pad After a classical education by private tutor at Urbino, he studied mathematics with Guido Baldo under Federico Commandino beginning about 1570. He enrolled at the University of Padua in 1573, where he studied medicine, philosophy and literature. There is no mention of a degree. Rose explicitly states that Baldi did not take a degree. Later he studied with Guidobaldi. 
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mechanics, Mathematics; Principal contribution to physics was a commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics, which was probably written in the 1580's, but was published in 1621 after Baldi's death. In this he developed the idea of center of gravity. He also translated Hero's Automata, and he wrote extensive lives of mathematicians. Baldi translated the eighth book of Pappus, and he wrote two mathematical works that were never published and are now lost. As the last item may suggest, Baldi was primarily a literary figure. He was apparently enormously learned in languages.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; He went to Mantua in the service of Ferrante II Gonzaga (Mazzuchelli makes this Ferdinanco Gonzaga) in 1580. Vespasiano Gonzaga took him over for a time. He seems almost to have been an appendage (better, client) to the family. In 1585 Ferrante II secured him the post of abbot of Guastalla which he held until 1592. Baldi was ordained. He antagonized the Gonzaga during his tenure as abbot. He was commissioned in 1601 by the Duke of Urbino to write a life of Federigo da Montefeltro. He was historian and biographer of the Duke of Urbino from 1609 to 1617.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Merchant Patronage; Ferrante II Gonzaga, see above. Duke of Urbino, see above. Card. Carlo Borromeo recommended Baldi to the Duke of Mantua (Borromeo's nephew), and later he had Baldi with him in Milan for several years. In 1597 (and I don't know for how long) Baldi was in Rome in the retinue of Cintio Aldobrandini (who would later be Card. Aldobrandini). He dedicated his Egloghe (1590) to Ranuccio Farnese. Mark Welser arranged the publication of some of Baldi's works in Augsburg. Baldi dedicated his edition of Hero's Automata to Jacomo Contarini.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies:

Fabritio Scharloncini, 'De vita et scriptis Bernardini Baldi Urbinatis,: Preface to Baldi's In mechanica Aristotelis..., (Mainz, 1621) Microfilm Q111 L2 no.B32. R. Amaturo,' Bernardino Baldi,' Dizionario biografico degli italiani, V. (Rome, 1963), pp. 46-64 CT1123 D62 (RF). S. Drake and I.E. Drabkin, Mechanics in 17th Century Italy, (Madison, Wis., 1968), pp. 48-51. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 116-25. For a measure of the 18th century scale of literary values, compare the nine pages devoted to this relative nonentity to the single brief paragraph Mazzuchelli gave to the distinguished anatomist Aranzio. C. Grossi, Degli uomini illustri di Urbino comentario, (Urbino, 1819), 84-8. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 242-79.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Ireneo Affo, Vita di Bernardino Baldi, (Parma, 1783)
G. Zacagnini, Bernardino Baldi nella vita e nella opera, (Pistoia, 1901).

Baliani, Giovanni Battista

1. Dates: Born: Genoa, 1582; Died: Genoa, 1666; Datecode: Lifespan: 84 
2. Father: Aristocrat; A senator of Genoa, that is, a patrician. Although I find no specific mention, all of the details of Baliani's career make it evident that the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Genoa, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Genoa, Italy
4. Education: None Known; He was trained in Law. I find no mention of university education. 
5. Religion: Catholic (by obvious assumption) 
6. Scientific Disciplines:  Physics; Mechanics; Hydraulics; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; His most important work was the treatise on natually accelerated motion, which announced many of Galileo's conclusions before Two New Sciences appeared. The level of discussion in Baliani does not begin to approach Galileo's, so that issues of plagiary have inevitably arisen. (He had had contact with Galileo.) Baliani also wrote on the motion of water and on some questions of natural philosophy in general. He used an experimental method.
7. Means of Support: City Magistrate; Personal Means; He spent most of his life in public service. In 1611 he was prefect of the fortress at Savona. In 1623 he was Governor of Sarzana, and in 1624 he entered the Genoan Senate. In 1647-49 he was the governor of the fortress (Savona), and was then elevated to membership in the principal governing body of Genoa, where he remained until his death. 
8. Patronage: None; Questions of patronage did not arise.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; His involvement in a hydraulic project in Genoa led to the letter to Galileo about the weight of the atmosphere, and through the discussion in Two New Sciences to the whole debate that ended in Torricelli, Pascal, and Boyle. He published (in Opere diverse, 1616) writings about an improved carriage and on a means of making a trireme more swift, but until I get information that these ideas advanced beyond the realm of mere words, I won't count them.
10. Scientific Societies: His correspondence with Galileo, which began in 1614, lasted for many years.

Alpinolo Natucci, 'Giovan Battista Baliani letterato e scienzato del secolo XVII,' Archivesinternationales d'histoire des sciences, 12 (1969), pp.167-183 Q1 .A734. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 171-2. 

Banister, John

1. Dates:Born: Twigworth, Gloucestershire, 1650; Died: Virginia, May 1692, shot in a hunting accident; Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Unknown; John Banister is known only from his son's matriculation record in Magdalen College, where he is recorded as 'pleb.' No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English (England and Virginia); Death: English (Virginia)
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1667-74; B.A., 1671; M.A. 1674.
5. Religion: Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Entomology; Banister's hope was to compose a general natural history of Virginia. He sent John Ray a lengthy catalogue of the plants of Virginia, and he published papers on the insects, mullusks, and plants of Virginia in the Philosophical Transactions.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Personal Means; He functioned as a clerk in Magdalen College, 1674-6, and then Chaplain, 1676-8. Apparently Banister went to Virginia to be an Anglican minister, and he does appear to have been one until the end of his life. Although his name does not appear on early lists of ministers, his status as a minister, possibly a curate, does appear well established. By 1689 there are records of him as a clergyman. Banister received at least encouragement and hospitality from William Byrd I, the trader at the falls of the James River, who acted as Banister's patron and business manager when Byrd was in London. Through Byrd's representation Banister probably received financial support from the Temple Coffee House Botany Club in London (Compton, Plukenet, Doody, Lister, and others), from 1687 to 92. Banister certainly sent them specimens and information. About 1690 Banister became a landholder himself, and he imported at least two slaves and apparently some indentured servants.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Scientist; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; His relation to Byrd is somewhat ambiguous, probably reflecting the rough state of the colony. Byrd became one of the wealthiest landholders in Virginia, and he ran a thriving trade with the Indians near the falls in the James River. He was also an important figure in the government of Virginia. His interest was in practical matters, such as products of economic potential, including minerals. The Ewans are dubious that Byrd gave Banister financial assistance. However, in a letter of 1679 Banister said that he was exceedingly obliged to Byrd, which is the language of patronage. Plukenet referred to Byrd as Banister's patron, and Banister's son was in the service of Byrd's son. Banister also probably got financial support from the Temple Coffee House Botany Club in London (Bishop Compton, Martin Lister, and others) during the period 1687-92. With the help of the club he imported 35 persons into the colony and received, from Lt. Gov. Francis Nicholson, 1735 acres in Charles City County on the south side of the Appomatock River in 1690. Bishop Compton appears to have had a special relation with Banister. A letter to the Bishop, who was greatly interested in his garden, to which Banister contributed seeds, certainly sounds like the letter of a client. (Source on patronage: Ewans, pp. 53, 78, 86-7.)
9. Technological Connections: Agr I list this with hesitation. One letter shows Banister much concerned with the crops that might possibly grow in Virginia as well as the natural species of plants. He sent seeds that introduced American species into English gardens. This is the most tenuous ascription of technological involvement in the whole catalogue; read his letter of 6 April 1679 to the Bishop of London (Compton) and decide for yourself.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal connections: correspondence with the members of the Temple Coffee House Botany Club, and with John Ray, Martin Lister, and other leading naturalists in England.

Joseph and Nesta Ewan, John Banister and his Natural History of Virginia, 1678-1696, (Urbana, Ill., 1970). QH31 B18E94 This book contains letters and manuscripts. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 1, 1039-40. Dictionary of American Biography, 2nd ed., ed. Allen Johnson et al., 11 vols. (New York, 1957-8), 1, 575-6. Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram, The Early English Colonies, (London, 1908), pp. 192-201. On the title page and in the signature to the preface it is merely Arthur Foley. All that is here is the original publication of Banister's letter of 6 April 1679 to Bishop Compton.

Baranzano, Giovanni Antonio [Redento]

1. Dates:Born: Italy, 1590 Died: France, 1622 Datecode: Lifespan: 32
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality. Birth: Italy Career: France Death: France
4. Education: University of Novara; Univeristy of Milan. Began his studies at Crevalcoure and Vercelli, continued at Novara and Milan. (I am not clear whether or not this was within the Barnabite order.) I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: natural philosophy Mazzuchelli says interestingly that Baranzano was one of those who, in the early years of the 17th century, thought it was necessary to cast off the yoke of Aristotle.
7. Means of Support: monastic (i.e, ecclesiastical position) 1609, took vows as a Barnabite and assumed the name 'Redento.'; 1615, sent to teach philosophy in Annecy, France. 1620-2, held teaching position at Montargis.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastical official, aristocracy Note: Church took a dim view of his defense of Copernicus (Uranoscopia seu De Caelo, 1617) and he was recalled to Milan by the archbishop. He swiftly withdrew his assertations in a pamphlet to be appended (where possible) to the book. Nevertheless, Baranzano had the active support thru this difficult episode of St. Francis de Sales, Bp. of Geneva, which must have helped. When seeking to gain royal approval for the Barnabite school at Montargis, he had the support of Antonio de Hayes of Montargis.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: He seems to have been in contact with Tobia Adami, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Giovanni Magini.

M. Tronti, 'Baranzano,' Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, V (Rome, 1963), 776-9. R.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres dans la republique des lettres..., 3 (Paris, 1727), 43-8. [Lilly]; G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 230-1.

Barba, Alvaro Alonso

1. Dates: Born: Spain, c. 1569 (According to Rodriguez Carracido, 15 November 1569.); Died: Peru, 1662; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 93
2. Father: No Information No information on financial status, although it is almost impossible not to believe that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish colonial; Death: Spanish colonial
4. Education: None Known; There is no mention at all of university education.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Discipline: metallurgy From observations in Peru, he developed the slightly earlier crude amalgamation process into the one that lasted.
7. Means of Support: Church living Barba was a priest in the Catholic church by 1588, the time of the first information about him. Sent to Peru in 1588, where he spent life as priest. From 1624, served in Potosi, apparently at the request of Juan de Lizarazu, Pres. of the Real Audiancia de la Plata of Peru; he wrote his book, El arte de los metales, at the urging of Lazarazu. Dedicated the book to Lazarazu. It was published in Spain at the royal press, I assume through the support of Lazarazu. He returned to Spain in 1658 to advise on extraction of metals; he was very critical of government's policy on this in Spain; he returned to America in 1662 and died.
8. Technology: Metallurgy
9. Patronage: Governmental official
10. Scientific Societies: None.

Gran enciclopedia RIALP. José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). J.E. Munoz, 'Alvaro Alonso Barba,' Anales de la Universidad Central de Quito, 93 (1964), 241-55. Modesto Bargallo, La mineria y la metalurgia en la American espanola durante la epoca colonial, (Mexico, 1955), especially pp. 223-5. Jose Rodriguez Carracido, 'Alvaro Alonso Barba,' Estudioshistorico-criticos de la ciencia espanola, 2nd ed. (Madrid, 1917), pp. 169-84. I find mention of a dissertation in Spain by Jose M. Barnados on Barba, which was not published at the time of the reference.

Barchusen, Johann Conrad

1. Dates:Born: Horn, Westphalia, Germany, 16 March 1666 Died: Utrecht, Netherlands, 2 October 1723; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch 
4. Education: None Known; No formal schooling, studied pharmacy under various famous German practitioners 1698, Honorary MD from Utrecht (do not list this)
5. Religion: Protestant (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: chemistry, iatrochemistry 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; I am convinced that the patronage from the city fathers of Utrecht had to be connected with medical practice, but so far we find no mention of it. He did practice on campaign with Morosini. Before 1693, worked with pharmacists while studying with them. He was sort of an itinerant physician/pharmacist 1693, physician to Francesco Morosini during his military campaign. 1694, became Privatdozent in chemistry at Utrecht. April 1695, City Fathers of Utrecht provided him with a laboratory. 1698, became Lector in Chemistry at Utrecht, starting salary of 250 guilders, various raises later brought it to 600 guilders. 1703, promoted to extraordinary professor of chemistry. Also received various lump sums for the dedication of some of his published works.
8. Patronage: aristocracy, then city magistrates; Physician to Morosini in 1693. Owed his salary and every academic promotion to the magistrates of Utrecht (no specific ones mentioned).
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice, pharmacology; Pharmacist/physician early in career. Barchusen was the first to teach a technological course (metallurgy) in a university chemistry course; he also taught iatrochemistry.
10. Scientific Societies: None

O. Hannaway, 'Johann Conrad Barchusen (1666 - 1723)-Contem porary and Rival of Boerhaave', Ambix, 14 (1967), pp 96 - 111 (contains list of secondary literature) QD 13 .A49

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Caspar Burmann, Traiectum eruditum, (Utrecht 1750) p. 14 - Manuscripta Film List 12 Reel 3; E. Cohen, 'De Chemie te Utrecht in den loop der Eeuwen I', Chem. Weekblad, 38 (1941), pp. 299-300 - Chem Lib QD 1. C548; John Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, (2 vol Glasgow 1906), 1, 72 (cites other sources) - Lilly; Joecher, Allgemeine Gelehrten Lexicon, (Leipzig 1750), 1, col 780 - Reference room has reprint Hildesheim 1961; G. W. Kernkamp, De Utrechtsche Academie 1636 - 1936, 2 vols. (Utrecht 1936), 1, 169, 294, et passim 
Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIXe siecle, (Paris 1867), 2, 229. C. L. F. Panckoucke, Biographie Medicale, (Paris 1820), 1, 554. J. W. Van Spronsen, 'Barchusen 1666-1723', Chem. Weekblad, 62 (1966), 604-6.  Biographie Universelle, (Paris 1843), 3, p. 71. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexicon, 2nd ed, (Berlin 1929), p. 335. E. Hoefer, Biographie Generale, (Paris 1861), 3, col 469. 

Barocius [Barozzi], Franciscus

1. Dates: Born: Candia, Crete, 9 August 1537; Died: Venice, 23 November 1604; Datecode: Lifespan: 67.
2. Father: Aristocrat; Iacopo Barozzi, a Ventian noble. Barozzi apparently inherited a very extensive estate in Crete, and one cannot avoid the conclusion that he was reared in wealthy circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Candia Crete (a Venetian colony). Career: Italy; Death: Venice, Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; Received a humanistic education at the University of Padua. He also studied mathematics. There is no mention of a degree. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Barozzi was tried by the Inquisition (charge unknown) and found guilty about 1583. In 1587 there was another charge, this time of apostacy and heresy, from the sentence apparently charges of engaging in occult magical practices.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Occult Philosophy; Translated Proclus', Hero's, and Achimedean writings on geometry. He also published Cosmographia, 1585. Barozzi was part of the movement to revive science via a close study of the ancients. As mentioned above, Barozzi got deeply involved in occult philosophy and in consequent trouble with the Inquisition.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means. He lectured on the sphere of Sacrobosco at the University of Padua in 1559. But it is clear that he never held a university appointment and, as an aristocrat, was in fact legally excluded from such. Barozzi had extensive estates which yielded an income of 4,000 ducats in Candia, and he lived there at least part of his life. His correspondence seems to indicate that he lived in Venice for the most part.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Given Barozzi's position and wealth, patronage in the ordinary sense cannot have applied to him. I do however note the following dedications, whatever they may have meant. Rythmomachia to Camille Paleotti, a Senator of Bologna. The initial publication of an oration delivered in Padua in 1558 to the Rev. Daniello Barbara, Patriarch of Aquila. His edition of Hero to the Duke of Mantua. His commentary on passages in Plato to Card. Gabriello Paleotti. Cosmographia to the Duke of Urbino. 
9. Technological Connections:
10. Scientific Societies: He was a member of the Paduan Accademia dei Potenti, which I do not list as a scientific society. He corresponded with Sarpi, Aldrovandi, and Clavius.

Dizionario biografico degli italiani, VI (1964), pp. 495-9. B. Boncompagni, 'Intorno alla vita e ai labori de Francesco Barozzi' Bullettino di bibliographia e di storia delle scienze mathematiche e fisiche, 17 (1884) pp. 795-848. Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 6, (New York, 1941), 25, 47, 154-5, 199. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 2, 411-14. 

Barrow, Isaac 

1. Dates: Born: London, October 1630; Died: London, 4 May 1677. Datecode: Lifespan: 47; 
2. Father: Merchant; Thomas Barrow was a linen-draper with connections with the court. It appears that he was prosperous, until the Puritan victory.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England; 
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. Charterhouse; Felsted in Essex. University of Cambridge (Trinity), 1646-52; B.A., 1648; M.A., 1652. Bachelor of Divinity, 1661 (I don't list this). 
5. Religion: Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Church Living; Patronage of Martin Holbeach, Dr. Duport and Henry Hammond during the interregnum. Professor, 1660-9: Professor of Greek in the U. of Cambridge, 1660-2. Professor of geometry in Gresham College, 1662-3. Professor of mathemetics in the U. of Cambridge, 1663-9. Royal chaplain in London, 1669- . He also received a sinecure from his uncle, a bishop, and in 1671 a prebend in Salisbury. Master of Trinity. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Gentry; Merchant; Academic; Minor patronage before the Restoration: Ecclessiastical Officer: Henry Hammond, the great Oxford Divine, gave him monetary assistance before 1660. Dr. Duport, professor of Cambridge, promised to coach him for nothing in 1640s. Before Duport, Thomas Hill, the Master of Trinity, helped Barrow. During the Interregnum members of the Walpole family gave Barrow support and led him to enroll in Trinity. Barrow dedicated his Euclid (1656) to three fellow-commoners of Trinity: Edward Cecil (son of the Earl of Salisbury), John Knatchbull (heir of Sir Norton K.), and Francis Willughby. He dedicated his edition of Euclid's Data (1657) to James Stock, a London merchant whom Barrow met in Paris. Stock is described as Barrow's generous patron; he died, however, in 1658. The English Ambassador to Constantinople, Sir Thomas Bendish, housed Barrow there for a year and a half, and the merchant Jonathan Dawes gave him financial support. John Wilkins was the Master of Trinity when Barrow returned. He became Barrow's chief patron. Wilkins recommended him for the professorship in Gresham College in 1662, and also was responsible for his position of professor of geometry in Cambridge. Barrow got the professorship in 1660 by royal order, and was created D.D. in 1670 by royal mandate. He was made University Vice-chancellor and Master of Trinity by order of the king. In 1661 he obtained a letter patent allowing him, as Regius Professor, to retain his fellowship. In Barrow's appointment as Master, the Duke of Buckingham and Archbishop Sheldon were pivotal. Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, gave Barrow a prebend at Salisbury, which Barrow resigned when he became Master of Trinity. Note that Barrow was University Vice-Chancellor, 1675, as the King's choice. (Sources on patronage: H. Osmond, Isaac Barrow, His Life and Times, pp. 13-14, 98-99. Also Feingold, pp. 1-104.);
9. Technological Connections: None. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: Intimate frienship with John Ray; the relation with Newton Royal Society, 1662.

H. Osmond, Isaac Barrow, His Life and Times, (London, 1944), pp. 13-14, 40, 85, 98-99, 103.  Mordechai Feingold, ed., Before Newton. The Life and Times of Isaac Barrow, (Cambridge, 1990), especially Feingold, 'Isaac Barrow: Divine, Scholar, Mathematician,' pp. 1-104.

Bartolotti, Gian Giacomo

1. Dates: Born: Italy, ca 1471; Died: Italy, after 1530; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: Physician; He came from a family of doctors; his father, Pelligrino, was competent in both pharmacy and surgery. As usual, I assume affluence.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; Fer; M.D. Bartolotti studied philosophy and medicine at the universities of Bologna and Ferrara; at the latter he was a pupil of Antonio Cittadini and of Sebastiano Dell'Aquila. Affa says that he became a doctor-i.e., M.D. Otherwise the sources are silent about a degree, but it seems probable to me. 
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; He translated Cebe's Table (Pinax) in 1498, and later published his Opusculum de antiquitate medicinae, a brief treatise on the history of ancient medicine.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; In 1498 he was assigned to teach a course at the University of Ferrara, but he is not listed with the regular appointment. Toward the close of the century he was practicing medicine, and in the early 16th century he was doing so at Venice.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; La tavola di Cebetti, 1498, was done at the instance of Niccolo-Maria d'Este, Bishop of Adria. Bartolotti dedicated the Opusculum, 1498, to the same bishop. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

I.Affo, Memorie degli scrittori e letterati parmigiani, 3, Parma, 1791, pp.178-179. Manuscipta Film List 3 Reel 1-2; G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, p.479. Manuscripta Film List 3 Reel 8-9; Not in Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Not in A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). 
It seems clear to me that Bartolotti was included in the DSB for the sole purpose of having more people from his period. It is obvious that he was not an outstanding scientist according to any reasonable criterion.

Bartoli, Daniello

1. Dates: Born: Ferrara, 12 February 1608; Died: Rome, 12 January 1685; Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Scientist; Tiburzio Bartoli, a man known as learned in the chemical and 'spargical' art. I guess I'll list him as a scientist, but I am uneasy. Daniello was the last of three sons. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Ferrara, Italy; Career: Italy Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: University of Parma; Military; University of Bologna; D.D. Entered the Society at age of 15 and studied rhetoric with the Jesuits at Piacenza and Parma. At Parma he completed the course in philosophy, which I take to be the B.A. or at least its equivalent. 1634, University of Brera in Milan (I don't know what this means; I list it as University of Milan). Then to University of Bologna where he studied theology under G.B. Riccioli. He completed the course in theology, which I take to be an advanced degree (doctorate) in theology. As a full Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a Jesuit. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Bartoli was the historian of the Jesuit order who left an immense corpus of historical and religious writing. His importance lies in religion, not in science. However, late in life he returned to interests that Riccioli had stimulated, and he expounded and popularized the works of contemporary physicists, particularly barometric experiments and the concept of atmospheric pressure. He also wrote on sound and on freezing. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Initially he taught rhetoric at Parma for a time (1629-33). He took final vows in 1643. Bartoli wanted to be sent abroad as a missionary. Because of his learning, his superiors kept him at home to teach. Beyond the college in Parma, he taught in Jesuit colleges in Piacenza, Mantua, Modena, and Bologna. For a time the Jesuits intended him to preach, an activity at which he had extraordinary success. However he was made historian of the order in 1646 and stationed in Rome. He was rector of the Collegio Romano from 1671 to 1673.
8. Patronage: Bartoli was obviously valued by the authorities of his order for his merits, and perhaps it is difficult to distinguish this from patronage. However, Bartoli sought no career for himself. He would have preferred the foreign mission and perhaps martyrdom. He accepted a different role imposed upon him by his superiors and fulfilled it with vigorous endeavor for a lifetime. I cannot bring myself to call the order's utilization of him patronage. It is significant that the Grand Master of Malta invited Bartoli to write the history of the knights. This would surely have been patronage. However, Bartoli refused to give up the tasks the Jesuits had set for him and he turned the offer down.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies:

A. Asor-Rosa, 'Daniello Bartoli' in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, VI, Rome, 1964. G. Boero, ed., Letter edite ed inedite del P. Daniello Bartoli, (Bologna, 1865)-with a life of Bartoli as preface. Let me remark that most of the letters from the latter part of Bartoli's life concern scientific questions. I only skimmed them, but it appears to me that they might contain interesting materials for understanding the scientific mentality of the second half of the century.
G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ). 

Bartholin, Caspar

1. Dates: Born: Malmo, Denmark, 12 February 1585; Died: Soro, Denmark, 13 July 1629; Datecode: Lifespan: 44
2. Father: Court priest in Malmo; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Malmo, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Soro, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Wittenburg; M.A. University of Basel; M.D. University of Leiden; Pad. Educated at Grammar School, 1588-96. Matriculated at the University of Copenhagen in 1603, but transfered to Wittenberg in 1604. M.A., 1605. He then went on an academic grand tour. He was at Leiden, Basel, Padua, Rome, and then back at Basel. M.D., 1610 at Basel. D.D., 1626 awarded by the University of Copenhagen.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Natural Philosophy; Works on anatomy: Anatomicae institutiones corporis humani and others. He also wrote extensively on medicine in general. Works on natural philososphy: Systema physicum, Exercitatio de natura, De principiis rerum naturalium, and others.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Professor eloquentia at the University of Copenhagen, 1611-13. Professor of medicine at the University of Copenhagen, 1613-24. Professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen, 1624-9. Dean of the University, 1629 (for the second time). He maintained a medical practice in Copenhagen that included the very upper echelons of society.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; 1611, Chancellor Christen Friis offered Bartholin the chair in Latin at the university. 1619, Bartholin received an order from the king to publish schoolbooks in the different philosophical subjects. As payment he received a canonry in the Roskilde diocese (which I categorize as income from patronage). After 1610 Bartholin had Holger Rosenkranz (a powerful and influential orthodox theologian who was a member of the royal council, and whom I classify as a governmental official) as patron. It was because of this relationship that Bartholin took up theological studies again.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Bartholin worked as a physician in Copenhagen, treating the king, members of the nobility, and others. In 1619, along with others of the medical faculty, he published 'A Short Instruction' on how one should care for himself during the plague.
10. Scientific Societies: He had connections with Felix Platter, Caspar Bauhin, Jacob Zwinger, Johannes Faber, and corresponded with many other scientists.

V. Ingerslev, Danmarks laeger og laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-74), pp.270-4. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, (Copenhagen, 1979), 1, 470-2. Holger F. Roerdam, Kjoebenhauns Universitets Historle fra 1537 til 1621, (Copenhagen, 1873-77), 8, passim.

Bartholin, Erasmus

1. Dates: Born: Roskide, Denmark, 13 August 1625; Died: Copenhagen, 4 November 1698 Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Physician; Academic; Caspar Bartholin, Physician, Academic. He died when Erasmus was four. No clear information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Roskide, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; B.A. and M.A. University of Leiden; University of Padua; M.D. Taught initially by private teachers, then attented Latin school. 1642-4: University of Copenhagen, B.A. in 1644. M.A. in 1647. Studied mathematics at the University of Leiden for several years beginning in 1645. 1651: studied mathematics in France and Italy, ultimately at Padua where he was Consiliarius for the German Nation and Vice-syndicus for the university. M.D., 1654 at Padua. 1654-6: travelled and studied in Italy.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Astronomy; Major contribution to science was his study of Icelandic spar. Writings in pure mathematics were fairly numerous but not of great importance. Wrote a little on medicine. Observed the comets of 1665 and other astronomical objects, and published about this topic.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Government Position; Professor of mathematics at Copenhagen, 1657. Extraordinary chair of medicine, 1657. Royal Mathematician, 1667. Ordinary chair of medicine, 1671. Teacher to Prince Joergen, 1671. Dean of the faculty of medicine. Librarian. Rector in three different years. Royal physician. Privy concilor, Advisor to the chancellor, then minister of justice.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was supported and directed by Frederick III of Denmark to prepare for publication of collected manuscript observations of Tycho Brahe. In addition, all of the connections to the court, and the various appointments above.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; As a physician, he introduced quinine in the fight against malaria.
10. Scientific Societies: He worked with Ole Roemer on Tycho's manuscripts. He worked with Niels Stensen on crystallography. 

Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, (Copenhagen, 1979), 1, 475-6. V. Ingerslev, Dansk Laeger og Laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-4), pp. 586-9.

Not Consulted: Axel Garboe, 'Nicolaus Steno & Erasmus Bartholin' in Danmarks geologiske undersogelse, 4th ser., 3, no. 9 (1954), pp.38-48 QE278 A4 Ser.3. V. Maar, Den forste anvendelse of kinsbark i Danmark, (Leiden, 1925). Kirstine Meyer, Erasmus Bartholin, et Tidsbillede, (Copenhagen, 1933). Jed Z. Buchwald and Kurt Moeller Pedersen, 'Introduction,' in Erasmus Bartholin, Experiments on Bifrefringent Icelandic Crystal, trans. Thomas Archibald, (Copenhagen, 1991).

Bartholin, Thomas

1. Dates: Born: Copenhagen, 20 October 1616; Died: Copenhagen, 4 December 1680; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Physician; Academic; Caspar Bartholin, physician, Professor of eloquentia, medicine, and theology at University of Copenhagen. The father died when Thomas B. was 13. Since he was a physician, I assume he was affluent. All the evidence about him indicates as much.
3. Nationality: Birth: Copenhagen, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Leiden; University of Padua; University of Basel; MD; Studied at the University of Copenhagen,1634-37; at Leiden, 1637-40. Also studied medicine at Padua (1641-3, 1644-5). I certainly assume a B.A. or equivalent in all that. M.D., 1646 at Basel.
5. Religion: Lutheran 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Anatomy; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Many works on anatomy, physiology and medicine, from 1645 through 1674. In 1658 a general work on pharmacology.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Medical Practioner; Throughout his life, Bartholin, who did not want a large practice, carried on a small one, largely with friends and relatives. Mathematical faculty of the University of Copenhagen, 1647-49; Anatomy professor of Copenhagen, 1649-61. As secundus medicus at the university, he received some of his salary from church thithes. He was, in addition entitled to wood from the university's forests, and feed for his animals, fish, and pigs. Named professor honorarius, 1661, by a royal decree. There is mention of a pension, but uncertainty as to whether it was ever paid. Brought the estate of Hagestedgaard, 1663. In 1666, he received a royal letter stating that he would receive an honorary gift of 4000 Rigsdaler in recognition of his diligence and service. This was paid with landholding. After fire destroyed his estate in 1670, King Christian V named Bartholin as his personal physician, with an annual salary of 600 Rdl, although Bartolin rarely had to treat the king. In 1671 he was named university librarian, with a salary of 120 Rdl. and a pension of 2000 Rdl.
8. Patronage: Court; Ole Worm gave Bartholin his initial appointment at the University of Copenhagen. Since Worm was a relation (husband of B's aunt), I won't call this patronage. Above are instances of patronage from the court. King Frederik III, who was interested in anatomy, attended Bartholin's demonstrations and commissioned him in 1654 to write Augusta anatome (which was never published). Shortly before Frederik III died (February 1670), he named Bartholin as archiater honorarius as a reward for his services. There is no mention of a salary. After Bartholin's estate burned in 1670, Christian V made it tax-free for three years.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; In 1654, along with the rest of the medical faculty at the university, Bartholin published advice to the people on how to take care of themselves during the plague. In 1673 he held the first exams for midwives in Denmark.
10. Scientific Societies: no formal ones. I am fascinated with the hints in his biography of a tight academic circle of related men in Denmark. Bartholin's father was a professor at the University of Copenhagen. His mother's father, Thomas Fincke, was a professor at the university, as was his aunt's husband, Ole Worm. Erasmus B. was his brother. Thomas's son Caspar, who was also an anatomist of importance, would follow at the university. Peder Soerenson, who is in the DSB as Severinus, and apparently held a chair at the university, also belongs in this circle; he was the husband of Fincke's cousin Drude Thorsmede, the daughter of the brother of Fincke's mother. Add to the circle Christian Soerensen (or Severin, known as Longomontanus) who was also related. Sometime between 1641 and 43, he was made a member of the learned society of Venice, Accademia de' signori incogniti. He maintained a lasting friendship with Marco Aurelio Severino, and a prolific correspondence with many scientists throughout Europe-among others, Pierre Bourdelet (France), Hermann Conring (Germany), Guy Patin (Paris), Johannes Scheffer (Uppsala), Niels Stensen (Denmark), Sktanislau Lubienitzsky (Poland). Letters are published in Epistolae medicinales (1663-7). Responsible for the royal decree of 1672 that decided the organization of Danish medicine for the next hundred years.

Axel Garboe, Thomas Bartholin et bidrag til dansk natur-oglaegevidenskabs historie i det 17. aarhundrede, 2 vols, (Copenhagen, 1949-50). QM16 .B26G. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 2. 476-9.

Basso, Sebastian

1. Dates:Born: unknown; Died: unknown. fl. second half of 16th century; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: -
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Un; Career: France?; Death: Un
4. Education: Non; He studied under Petrus Sinsonius at the Academia Mussipontana (Pont a Mousson, Lorraine)
5. Religion: Unknown.
6. Discipline: Scholastic Philosophy; He is associated with atomism, but within the context of Scholastic philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practice. Although there is no sound information, he did describe himself as 'doctore medico.'
8. Patronage: possibly from Aristocracy; Dedication of Basso's book: 'Nobili ac singularis spei Adolscenti D. D. Carolo Tonardo Domino d'Ison' followed by 6 page letter in Latin
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: no known contacts

Sebastian Basso, Philosophia Naturalis adversus Aristotelem Libri XII. In quibus abstrusa Veterum Physiologia restaurantur, & Aristotelis Errores solidis Rationibus refelluntur, (Geneva 1621). - Microfilm Q 53. Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, (reprint Hildesheim 1961) - (reference room) no biographical information. Kurt Lasswitz, Geschichte der Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton, 1 (Hamburg-Leipzig, 1890), 467-481 - cites other sources but says nothing is known about Basso's life. J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 2 (London, 1961), 387-388. (cites other sources but has found no bio info). Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 6, (New York, 1941), 386-388. (no biographical information).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: I. Guareschi, 'La teoria atomistica e Sebastiano Basso con notizie e considerazioni su William Higgins', in Memoria della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche, e Naturali, 11 (1916), 289-388; Kurt Lasswitz, Vierteljahrschrift fuer wissenschaftlichenPhilosophie, 9 (1884), 18 - 55. Lauge Olaf Nielsen, 'A 17th-century Physician on God and Atoms: Sebastian Basso,' in Norman Kretzmann, ed., Meaning and Inference in Medieval Philosophy: Studies in Memory of Jan Pinborg, (Dordrecht, 1988), pp. 297-369. 

Bauhin, Gaspard

1. Dates:Born: Basel, Switzerland, 17 January 1560; Died: Basel, Switzerland, 5 December 1624; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: physician; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: Swiss; Death: Swiss
4. Education: University of Basel; M.D. Secondary Means of Support: taught by his father and brother Jean, but also attended gymnasium of Thomas Platter. University: 1572, entered University of Basel; 1575, bachelor of Philosophy; 1577, first medical disputation. 1577 (Oct) - early 1581, studied under various people in Italy, France, and Germany. 1581 (early), returned to Basel. 1581 (2 May), MD.
5. Religion: Calvinist French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugee from France.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Botany
7. Means of Support: Academic position and Medical practice; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; 1581 (27 Feb), held first public anatomy at U. of Basel. 1581 (13 May), made member of Faculty of medicine. 1582 (April), made professor of Greek (continued teaching anatomy and botany). 1584, became consiliarius of Faculty of Medicine (held office until death). 1586, first of 8 times as dean of faculty. 1592, rector of university. 1589, special chair in anatomy and botany created for him. 1580's, growing private medical practice. 1597 (6?), along with brother Jean, is physician to Duke Frederick of Wuerttemberg. 1598, rector of university. 1611, rector of university. 1614, became archiater to the city of Basel. 1614, appointed professor of practice of medicine. 1619, rector of university.
8. Patronage: court & aristocracy; Co-physician to Duke Frederick of Wuerttemberg (his father, son, and grandson were also physicians in various courts). His books dedicated to various barons.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Wide ranging correspondence to collect botanical information. No formal societies.

C. Jessen, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Band II, (Leipzig 1876), S. 151-2 - ; ; L. Legré, La botanique en Provence au XVIe siecle. Les DeuxBauhin, Jean Henri Cherler et Valerand Dourez, (Marseille, 1904).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Albrecht Burckhardt, Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultaet zu Basel 1460 - 1900, (Basel, 1917), pp. 95 -123. J. von Hess, Bauhins Leben, (Basel, 1860). 

Bauhin, Jean

1. Dates:Born: Basel, Switzerland, 12 February 1541; Died: Montpeliard, principality of Wuertemberg- Montpeliard, 27 October 1612; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: physician; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality:Born: Swiss (son of French emigres); career: French, Swiss, German; death: German
4. Education: University of Tübingen; University of Zurich; University of Montpellier; M.D., also University of Padua; University of Bologna; Studied under his father; 'Basic education in Basel', with Curione (Basel professor) among others, then Tübingen (with Leonard Fuchs) and Zurich (with Conrad Gesner). 'Short visits to foreign universities between 1560 and 1563 (1561-2 in Montpellier, lived with and studied under Rondelet) - for details see ADB. He attained the M.D. In Italy in 1562-3, especially Padua and Bologna.
5. Religion: Calvinist; French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugree from France.
6. Scientific Disciplines: botany, Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; A few minor medical writings.
7. Means of Support: Medical practice and patronage; 1563-8, medical practice at Lyons. 1568, began medical practice at Geneva. 1570, professor of rhetoric, U. of Basel; I gather that this appointment lasted only a short time. 1570, called to Montpeliard as personal physician, anatomist, and botanist to Duke Frederick of Wuertemberg. He established a botanical garden for the Duke in 1567. He was frequently called on medical consultations by illustrious patients in the general neighborhood, such as the Duchess of Lorraine.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocratic Patronage; Personal physician to Duke Frederick of Wuertemberg. Displayed his archeological collections in a museum at Duke Frederick's chateau. Went on 'missions' for Duke Frederick. 'Der Berner Patricier Grassenried' gave 40,000 Gulden for the postumous publication of his Historia Plantarum. However, this was long after Bauhin's death-don't list it. However, those illustrious patients such as the Duchess of Lorraine.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal: friend and correspondent of Gesner; collaborators and informants in many countries, really with botanists everywhere he went. Formal: 1575 instrumental in establishing the College of Medical Practioners in Montpeliard, which regulated the duties of all practitioners and provided free medical services to the poor

C. Jessen, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, II, (Leipzig, 1876) 149-151. L. Legré, La botanique en Provence au XVIe siecle. Les DeuxBauhin, Jean Henri Cherler et Valerand Dourez, (Marseille, 1904).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: L.-M. Dupetit-Thouars, Biographie universelle, 3, 556-559.
C. Duvernay, Notices sur quelques medicines, naturalistes et agronomes nes ou etablis a Montbeliard des le seizieme siecle, (Besancon, 1838), 1-24. E. and E. Haag, La France protestante, 2nd ed., 1, (Paris 1887), 1016-1023. C. Roth, 'Stammtafeln einiger ausgestorbener Gelehrtenfamilien,' Basler Zeitschrift fuer Geschichte und Altertumkunde, 15 (1916), 47-55. C. P. J. Sprengel, Geschichte der Botanik (Leipzig, 1817-1818), pp. 364 - 369. DSB lists others but they seem primarily to do with his science.

Bayer, Johann

1. Dates: Born: Germany, 1572; Died: Germany, 1625 Datecode: Lifespan: 53
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Germany Career: Germany Death: Germany
4. Education: University of Ingolstadt; Aug, L.D. 1592, enrolled at Ingolstadt, later moved to Augsburg. He earned a law degree; I assume B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic assumed.
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy
7. Means of Support: lawyer, Magistrate; Bayer was a lawyer, and amateur astronomer. 1612, appointed legal advisor to city council of Augsburg at an annual salary of 500 gulden.
8. Patronage: city magistrates. 1603, dedicated his Uranometria to two leading citizens of Augsburg and received an honorarium of 150 gulden.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Collaborated with Schiller (Ernst Zinner, Vierteljahrsschrift der astronomischen Gesellschaft, 72 (1937), 64-8.)

SOURCES: Franz Babinger, 'Johannes Bayer, der Begruender der neuzeitlichen Sternbenennung,' Archiv fuer die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und die Technik, 5 (1915), 108-113. 

Beaugrand, Jean

1. Dates: Born: Paris (?), ca. 1595; Died: Paris (?), ca. 22 December 1640; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 45
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Paris (?), France; Career: France; Death: Paris(?), France
4. Education: None Known; Studied under Viète 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Published Geostatique in 1636. He published on mathematics, and he observed astronomical events such as eclipses.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; He became mathematician to Gaston of Orleans in 1630 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Gaston of Orleans, see above
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: He was an early friend of Fermat and Etienne Despagnet, later of Mersenne and his circle. He was an official Paris correspondent to Fermat. Friendship and correpondence with Castelli, Galileo, and Hobbes. 

P.Humbert,' Les Astronmers francais de 1610 a 1667,' Société d'études scientifiques et archeéologiques de Draguignan, Memoires, 63 (1942), pp.1-72. Little in known about Beaugrand. There are few manuscripts and letters and no records. Not in Nouvelle biographie générale. Not in Dictionnaire de biographie française. References to Beaugrand are scatted throughout the standard eds of the correspondence of Fermat (P.Tannery and C. Henry, eds, Paris 1891-1912; (QA3.F3) Supp. vol., Waard, ed., Paris, 1922), Descartes (Adam And P.Tannery eds., Paris, 1897-1913, (B1833.T16)), and Mersenne (Marie Tannery, ed., Paris, 1933, (BX4705.M53.A3), v.1-3). 

Becher [Beccher], Johann Joachim

1. Dates:Born: Speyer, Germany 6 May 1635; Died: London, England? October 1682(?); Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 47
2. Father: minister; No clear information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Germany; Dutch; English. Spent a little time before death in Netherlands and England. Death: Germany; (some accounts say he died in Germany)
4. Education: Non Mostly self-educated. MD, U. of Mainz 16 November 1661-in view of the rest, it is highly unlikely that this was an earned degree
5. Religion: Roman Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: alchemy and metallurgy
7. Means of Support: Patronage, Governmental position; 1663, appointed professor of medicine at Mainz and physician to the elector of Mainz. 1664 (6?), went to Munich, was named Hofmedicus and Mathematicus to Ferdinand Maria, elector of Bavaria, who furnished him with a laboratory; 1666, obliged to leave Munich, went to Vienna,; Appointed public professor of medicine at University of Mentz (sic). He was appointed chamberlain to Count Zinzendorf, 'and through him acquired so much importance in the eyes of the court, that he was named a member of the newly-erected College of Commerce, and obtained the title of imperial commercial counsellor and chamberlain' to Emperor Leopold I. While in Vienna he established a Werkhaus containing a chemical lab for manufacturing pigments as well as for working with wool, silk, and glass. 1678, went to Holland, sold the city of Haarlem a plan for a machine that would spool silk cocoons. 1679, sold the Dutch a method of extracting gold from sea sand. 1679, at invitation of Prince Rupert, went to England; inspected mines in Cornwall (and Scotland?) for Prince Rupert. 1682, 'an advantageous proposal was made to him by the Duke of Mecklenburg Gustrow, by means of Count Zinzendorf,' but he died soon after. When he died, his family was so poor his daughter had to go into domestic service.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocracy; 1662, married daughter of 'influential jurist and imperial councillor' Ludwig von Hoernigk. Physician to 2 electors. Counsellor to Emperor Leopold I. In England was 'protected and befriended by Edmund Dickinson and Prince Rupert.'; See 'support' section for details.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; 1660, claimed to have invented a 'thermoscope' for automatically regulating the temperature of a furnace. Claimed to have invented a method for converting coal to coke. Promoted various industries while counsellor to Leopold; 1677-8, involved with silk and gold industries in Netherlands. 1681, took out a patent (with Henry Serle) on process for extracting tar from coal.
10. Scientific Societies: Unsuccessfully sought membership in Royal Society.

J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 2, (London 1961), 637 -652. Thomas Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1, (London 1830), 246-8. - Microprint (Landmarks of Science).

Not Available and Not Consulted: F. A. Steinhueser, Johann Joachim Becher und dieEinzelwirtschaft, (Nuremberg, 1931) - discusses his economic and administrative policies - describes further secondary literature. Thomas Thomson, History of the Royal Society . DSB gives other sources, they seem to focus on his science. 

Beeckman, Isaac

1. Dates: Born: Middleburg, 10 December 1588; Died: Dordrecht, 19 May 1637; Datecode: Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Artisan; Merchant; Beeckman's grandfather was a well-established merchant in Brabant forced to flee (to London) because of religion. Beeckman's father was forced by the intolerance for foreigners to emigrate from London to Middleburg. There the father was a candlemaker and one who installed and maintained water conduits. He married the daughter of a wagon maker. Artisan/Merchant seems to me best to sum up the father. There is plenty of evidence that the father prospered in Middleburg.
3. Nationality: Birth: Middleburg, Zeeland, Netherlands; Career: Netherlands; Death: Dordrecht, Netherlands.
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Saumur; University of Caen; M.D. Studied at Leiden 1607-1610, philosophy and linguistics. Though apparently he never received a B.A. he did do the equivalent of a B.A. Privately studied at Saumur, 1612. He originally intended to enter the ministry. M.D. from Caen in 1618. He was self-educated in medicine. However, he did study medicine seriously for two years ands he was examined at Caen under an established format.
5. Religion: Reformed Church (i.e., Calvinist)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mechanics; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Engineer; Mtr; He was an early proponent of the application of mathematics in physics. In Dordrecht the city constructed a tower at the school for his meteorological and astronomical observations. He long kept meteorological records. He developed instruments for this purpose, including a thermoscope. He made astronomical observations with Lansberg. In his last years he dedicated himself more and more to grinding lenses for telescopes.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Secondary Means of Support: Artisan; Apprenticed to his father's factory which made candles and water conduits, later pursued the same trade as an independent artisan in Zierikzee, Zeeland. 1619-20, conrector in Utrecht, Rotterdam. 1620, assistant (rector) to his brother in Rotterdam, sharing the salary with his brother. 1623-7, conrector in Rotterdam 1627, rector of the Latin School at Dordrecht; This appointment was due to the influence of Rivet, who also arranged the later visit by Gassendi and the correspondence with Mersenne.
8. Patronage: Merchant; City Magistrate; Academic; As a result of his advice, a leading merchant in Rotterdam pulled out of an undertaking with a new mill based on a perpetual motion principle. The merchant (Puyck) saved his shirt-and as a result commissioned Beeckman to build a fountain in his garden. He had considerable support for his scientific work from the magistrates of Dordrecht with whom he was very close. (Here one sees the overlap of patronage and friendship.); Don't forget the intervention of Rivet above.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Scientific Instruments; Mechanical Devices; Navigation. In 1619 he was consulted, as an expert, on a plan to rid the harbor of Middleburg of sandbars. In 1621 he repaired the waterlines (aqueducts) for a brewery. In 1620 he was consulted about a proposed new horsedriven mill that was based on a perpetual motion concept. His negative opinion was triumphantly vindicated. He worked at improving telescopes, and apparently did improve on the grinding of lenses. In 1636 he was appointed to the commision (of the Netherlands) to judge Galileo's proposal to determine longitude. See the information below about the Collegium Mechanicum.
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and correspondence with Snel, Descartes, Gassendi, Mersenne, Stampioen, Blaeu. He founded a Collegium Mechanicum, a society of craftsmen and scholars who occupied themselves with scientific problems, especially those that had technological application-for example, a windmill with horizontal sails on a vertical axis, and questions of mater management such as attempts to remove a sandbar from the Middleburg harbor.

de Waard, 'Beeckman,' Nieuw Nederlands Biografisch Woordenboek. E.J.Dijksterhus, Val en Worp, (Groningen, 1924), pp. 304-321. R.Hooykaas,'Science and Religion in the 17th century; Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637),' Free University Quarterly, 1, (1951), pp. 169-183. Klaas Van Berkel, Isaac Beeckman ed de mechanisiering van der wereldbeeld.

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