|Motto||Vox Veritas Vita (Latin)|
Motto in English
|"Speak the truth as a way of life."|
|Endowment||$66.6 million (2017)|
|President||Jane Close Conoley|
|2,283 (839 tenure track)|
|Students||37,776 (Fall 2016)|
|Undergraduates||32,246 (Fall 2016)|
|Postgraduates||5,530 (Fall 2016)|
|Location||Long Beach, California, United States|
33°46′59″N118°06′46″W / 33.783022°N 118.112858°W / 33.783022; -118.112858Coordinates: 33°46′59″N118°06′46″W / 33.783022°N 118.112858°W / 33.783022; -118.112858
|Campus||Urban, 323 acres (131 ha)|
|Colors||Black and Gold|
|Athletics||NCAADivision I – Big West|
|Nickname||49ers, Dirtbags, The Beach|
|Affiliations||California State University system|
California State University, Long Beach (CSULB; also known as Long Beach State, Cal State Long Beach, LBSU, or The Beach) is the third largest campus of the 23-school California State University system (CSU) and one of the largest universities in the state of California by enrollment, its student body numbering 37,776 for the Fall 2016 semester. The university continues to receive record numbers of applicants; for Fall 2018, it received 102,000 undergraduate applications -- the most of any CSU campus. As of Fall 2014, the school had 2,283 total faculty, with 36.7 percent of those faculty on the tenure track. With 5,286 graduate students, the university enrolls one of the largest graduate student populations across the CSU and in the state of California alone. The university is located in the Los Altos neighborhood of Long Beach at the southeastern coastal tip of Los Angeles County, less than one mile from the border with Orange County. The university offers 82 different Bachelor's degrees, 65 types of Master's degrees, and four Doctoral degrees.
Long Beach State is one of the West Coast's top universities in terms of student body racial diversity, being named the 5th most diverse university in the West by U.S. News & World Report. It is also home to the largest publicly funded art school west of the Mississippi. The university currently operates with one of the lowest student fees in the country at $6,738 per year for full-time students having California residence. CSULB has been recognized as one of "America's Best Value Colleges" by the Princeton Review.
The College was established in 1949 by California Governor Earl Warren, to serve the rapidly expanding post-World War II population of Orange and Southern Los Angeles counties. Since then, CSULB has grown to become one of the state's largest universities.
The institution was first named as Los Angeles-Orange County State College. Peter Victor Peterson was its first president. It offered 25 courses, taught by 13 faculty members, in two apartment buildings at 5381 Anaheim Road in Long Beach. In June 1950, the citizens of Long Beach voted overwhelmingly to purchase 322 acres (130 ha) as a permanent campus for the college, then known as Long Beach State College. The purchase price was nearly $1,000,000. Student enrollment grew rapidly in this new, permanent location.
Carl W. McIntosh was named the college's second president in 1959. While McIntosh was president, the school grew tremendously. Enrollment surged from about 10,000 to more than 30,000, and he rapidly expanded and revamped the curriculum. McIntosh tripled the number of faculty and constructed 30 new buildings. Although the 1960s were a period of deep unrest on American college campuses, McIntosh's collegial governing style, gentle and quiet demeanor, and willingness to permit protest on campus (so long as it remained quiet and peaceful) helped keep Long Beach State College relatively quiet throughout the period. In 1964, LBSC changed its name to California State College at Long Beach. In 1967, the California state legislature revamped the state college system. It changed its name in 1968 to California State College, Long Beach, as part of these changes and began to be much more closely integrated into the California State College system.
In 1965, CSULB hosted the first International Sculpture Symposium to be held in the United States and the first such symposium to be held at a college or university. Six sculptors from abroad and two from the United States created many of the monumental sculptures present on the campus. The event received national media attention from newspapers around the country, including The New York Times, Los Angeles Times Magazine, Art in America and a six-page color spread in Fortune.
McIntosh departed for Montana State University in 1969, and was succeeded by President Steve Horn. The school acquired university status in 1972, along with 12 other state college campuses. The promotion was decided by the Board of Trustees of the California State University (CSU) system, according to total enrollment, size of graduate programs, complexity and diversity of majors and number of doctorates held by faculty at each college. CSCLB thus became (CSULB)California State University, Long Beach.
Also in 1972, the campus became the home of the largest library facility in the then 19-campus CSU system: a modern six-story building with a seating capacity of nearly 4,000 students.
In 1995, President Robert Maxson initiated the privately funded President's Scholars Program, providing selected qualified California high school valedictorians and National Merit finalists and semi-finalists with a full four-year scholarship package, including tuition, a book stipend, and housing. As of May 2010[update], over 1000 students have accepted the scholarship. For applicants for Fall 2010, National Achievement Program Semifinalists/Finalists and National Hispanic Recognition scholars were also considered.
The campus spans 323 acres (131 ha) across 84 buildings, and is located 3 miles (5 km) from the Pacific Ocean. It has its own U.S. Postal ZIP Code, 90840. CSULB is located at 1250 Bellflower Boulevard. It is bounded by East 7th Street to the south, East Atherton Street to the north, Bellflower Boulevard to the west, and Palo Verde Avenue to the east.
The architecture of the campus is mostly of the International style (designed primarily by architect Edward Killingsworth) and is very minimalist, placing emphasis instead on the landscaping that surrounds it. This naturalistic, park-like layout has earned the campus numerous design awards, as well as other awards from gardening societies. Recent construction maintains the characteristic glass-and-brick style. The integration of landscaping and architecture is apparent at the school's theater complex, where a dense grove of ficus trees is planted in such a way that it forms a continuation of the pillar-supported canopy at the theater's entrance. The university's registration offices are located in the open courtyard of Brotman Hall, which is "roofed" by a similar jungle-like canopy. The Psychology building is also notable for its soaring, airy courtyard planted with tall Eucalyptus trees.
The University Student Union (USU) building is located at the center of campus. The three-story glass building occupies roughly 180,000 square feet (17,000 m2), housing numerous offices, and offering more casual attractions, including a study lounge, a ballroom, a food court, a bowling alley, an arcade, and a movie theater.
The Rec and Wellness Center is an extensive all-purpose athletic center covering about 125,000 square feet (11,600 m2) on North Campus. It was completed in 2010. It includes facilities for fitness programs and aerobics classes, courts for volleyball, basketball, badminton, rock climbing walls, an indoor track, a student lounge, and much more. The Center is funded and managed by CSULB's Associated Students, Incorporated (ASI).
49er basketball and volleyball games are currently played in the iconic, eighteen-story Walter Pyramid (formerly known as the Long Beach Pyramid) located on north campus. The Pyramid is a state-of-the-art sporting complex that can accommodate over 5,000 fans, including temporary seating and standing room. Two sections of interior stands are fitted with large hydraulic lifts that can lift the seating elements 45 degrees into the air, creating room for five volleyball courts or three basketball courts. The Pyramid is home to the Southern California Summer Pro League, a noted showcase for current and prospective NBA basketball players.
The University Art Museum (UAM) ranks in the top 10% of the nation's over 6,000 museums. Its permanent collection contains primarily abstract expressionist paintings, works on paper, and an outdoor sculpture garden that began in 1966. The UAM was the first accredited museum in the CSU system. In addition, the museum's Gordon F. Hampton collection is housed at the Downtown Los Angeles law offices of Sheppard Mullin.
The campus is also home to the Carpenter Performing Arts Center, a 1,074-seat theater named after CSULB alumni Richard and Karen Carpenter.
The Earl Burns Miller Japanese Garden is an artistic retreat of solitude and beauty. Among its many picturesque attractions, the Garden features a large pond populated with koi.
The campus is believed to be the location of an ancient Tongva village and burial site known as Puvunga, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. CSULB has challenged this designation, claiming they were not consulted when the application was filed. From 1992 to 1995, when the university attempted to build a strip mall and student housing on the last undeveloped portion of the campus, the Tongva people filed a lawsuit and initiated a protest, which involved physically occupying the land day and night to stave off bulldozers.
The university, in its push to support climate sustainability, installed solar panels on the Brotman Hall building and the Facilities Management canopy parking in 2007. The university has been taking steps in addressing the challenge of sustainability, with the support of its student government, student body, and organizations, such as the Environmental Science & Policy Club.
The Environmental Science & Policy Club (ES&P Club) has brought support to environmental awareness and sustainability through club activities, such as coastal clean-ups, hikes, plant-restoration project, tabling, conferences, guest speakers, & Kaleidoscope. In 2006, the ES&P Club supported the installation of waterless urinals in the university's men's restrooms. The ES&P Club hosts an annual Earth Week celebration each April, including documentary screenings, discussions, and speaker series.
In addition, there has been a push in recent years to revive the organic gardens on campus, culminating in 2015 with the launch of the Grow Beach University Gardens, a student-led ASI sub-group that promotes organic gardening and sustainable agriculture on campus. The new garden boxes are part of a campus-wide effort to provide a natural, organic, and convenient garden right on campus for student and faculty use.
The university "has a comprehensive energy management program incorporating real-time metering and energy-saving technologies such as the EnergySaver, which provides a more sophisticated alternative to turning off the lights by automatically varying the voltage to the ballasted fixtures and reducing the power consumed, while maintaining appropriate lighting levels."
CSULB comprises eight academic colleges:
Together, the colleges offer a total of 81 baccalaureate degrees, 67 master's degrees, 16 education-related credential programs, and three doctoral degrees (two joint and one independent).
The university's educational goals reflect its large population of students and faculty. Among the numerous classes and majors, Liberal Arts and Sciences represent the General Education (GE) core, while a variety of classes make up GE electives; all GE classes focus on the development of writing and critical thinking skills.
Academic department reputations
With nearly 4,000 students, CSULB is home to the largest Physics Department at any university in the State of California, inching past UC Berkeley, UC San Diego, and Cal Poly SLO. Additionally, the graduate physics program is the largest non-Ph.D. granting program in the United States  and is one of four Minority Bridges to the Ph.D. sites established by the American Physical Society. CSU Long Beach's College of the Arts has more art and design majors than any other public university in America. CSU Long Beach also produces the most master of science in nursing (MSN) graduates in the 23-campus CSU system.
U.S. News & World Report has repeatedly ranked CSULB engineering program as one of the Top 50 undergraduate programs in the nation (amongst master's level universities), and even commended the university's programs for first-year students as "stellar examples of academic programs that lead to student success." In 2008, CSULB's engineering program received its highest ever ranking at number 38. Long Beach's programs in Accounting, Business Administration, Geography, History, Nursing, and Art are also well respected in the industry.
In addition, according to the National Science Foundation, CSULB is the top campus in the nation amongst Master's level-granting universities for producing students who go on to earn doctoral degrees in the Sciences.
In 2011 a new $105,000,000 "Hall of Science" facility opened which has offices and labs for members of the biology, biochemistry and chemistry, geology, physics and science education departments. This building also houses a hands-on museum for children, a large salt water marine biology lab and has a greenhouse facility and observatory on the roof.
In March 2008, the music department was renamed the Bob Cole Conservatory of Music in honor of an endowment gift of $16.4 million from his estate. Cole, a Long Beach real estate investor, long-time music lover, and amateur pianist, died in 2004. The gift benefits the students of the conservatory in the form of scholarships and other awards.
Fall Freshman Statistics
|*SAT out of 1600|
Since 2009, CSU Long Beach has become the most applied to campus in the California State University system, receiving over 45,000 applicants with a record low admit rate of 31.8% that year, edging out San Diego State in number of applicants and Cal Poly San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly SLO) in percentage accepted. The Fall 2010 semester saw a continuation of this trend with CSULB receiving 79,715 applications (including 47,709 freshman applications) for admission, by far the highest total in school history. The total was again the highest in the CSU system, as well as one of the highest among all universities in the nation. In addition to being one of the three impacted CSU schools for both freshmen and transfers, the lack of state funding due to California's continuing budget crisis meant that CSULB could only offer admission to 25,142 (31.5%) of the applicants; that again marked the lowest percentage in school history. In turn 8,920 (35.5%) of those offered admission did in fact enroll, meaning the total application yield rate for the Fall 2010 semester was 11.6%.
CSULB had the lowest admit rate in the CSU system in fall 2009, and the third lowest in fall 2010 (behind San Diego State's 30% and Cal Poly's 32.5%). CSULB's average SAT score was the 12th highest in the CSU for the Fall of 2012.
With a Fall 2011 acceptance rate of nearly 30.4%, CSU Long Beach once again had the lowest admit rate in the CSU system for the year. The average high school GPA of incoming freshmen for Fall 2012 was 3.46 and the average SAT score was 1017/1600 (writing section is not considered). A preliminary count showed that the number of freshman applications to CSU Long Beach for Fall 2013 increased by 3% to roughly 56,000 applicants, again one of the highest numbers in the nation.
USNWR departmental rankings
|Health Care Management||57|
Cal State Long Beach was ranked the 19th top college in the United States by Payscale and CollegeNet's Social Mobility Index college rankings.
Money Magazine ranked Cal State Long Beach 183rd in the country out of the nearly 1500 schools it evaluated for its 2014 Best Colleges ranking. More recently, Money Magazine ranked Cal State Long Beach 42nd on its list of Best Colleges for Your Money 2017.
The Daily Beast ranked Cal State Long Beach 92nd in the country out of the nearly 2000 schools it evaluated for its 2013 Best Colleges ranking.
Long Beach State has been ranked as one of the top five public master's degree-granting institutions in the West by U.S. News & World Report's "America's Best Colleges Guide" in every year's edition from 2005 to 2013. The magazine also ranked it #39 in Regional Universities West.
Princeton Review named Cal State Long Beach`s Business school as one of the best 296 Business schools in 2015.
Forbes named CSULB one of America's best value colleges for 2017.
The university has three student publications: the Daily 49er, the Union Weekly (formerly The Long Beach Union Newspaper) and DIG Magazine.
The first issue of the Daily 49er, the campus newspaper, was published on November 11, 1949. It publishes Monday through Thursday during the fall and spring semesters, and once weekly during the summer sessions. It was one of the first college newspapers in the country to have an Internet edition, starting in August 1994.
The Union Weekly, which is partially student-funded, and affiliated with ASI, publishes every Monday during fall and spring semesters. It began on April 22, 1977, when it was formed in response to the Daily 49er. The Union Weekly focuses on being an alternative voice on campus and features a satirical section called "The Grunion" (not to be confused with the Long Beach paper the Grunion Gazette). During the late 1970s through 1980s, the Union was a daily newspaper, giving heavy competition to the Daily 49er. Journalism majors who worked on the "Union" did so under a pseudonym as it was a practice forbidden by the dean of the Journalism department.
DIG Magazine, the campus magazine, has gone through many changes throughout the years. It started off as The Lantern, a magazine for night-time students, before transforming to UniverCity in 1973. Then, it turned into University Magazine. In the early 2000s, the magazine transformed to DIG Magazine as a music magazine before transitioning to a general art & culture magazine. Today, the magazine features interesting people and groups within the community, and discusses topics that concern students' interests.
KKJZ 88.1 FM
The California State University Long Beach Foundation owns the KKJZ non-commercial broadcast license of 88.1 FM, a jazz and blues radio station. Global Jazz, Inc., an affiliate of Mount Wilson FM Broadcasters, Inc., programs and manages the radio station. In 2015, Global Jazz moved the station thirty miles from Long Beach to West Los Angeles.
Kbeach Radio, also known as KBeach.org, is a free format, student run internet radio station at CSU, Long Beach. It is also an HD Radio station via 88.1 HD3 as of 2013[update]. The radio station is operated year-round. The station has been around in various forms since the mid-1970s, then known as KSUL (which went defunct after 1981). KBeach is a department of Associated Students, Incorporated at CSULB and is both funded and regulated by them.
Each March since 1970, the university has hosted the largest pow-wow in Southern California. This free two-day event, which attracts more than 6,000 persons each year, features Native American dancing, arts, craft and native foods.
Greek life – sororities and fraternities
Eight national sororities on campus are governed by the Panhellenic Association and are members of the National Panhellenic Conference. Thirteen general fraternities are members of and governed by the Interfraternity Council. There is also a Cultural Greek Council which governs over six sororities, six fraternities and one co-ed fraternity.
Main article: Long Beach State 49ers
The Long Beach State 49ers compete in NCAA Division I in 18 sports teams and plays competitively in baseball, cross country, softball, track and field, women's tennis, and women's soccer, as well as both men's and women's basketball, volleyball, water polo and golf teams. The university is a founding member of the Big West Conference, and also competes in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation for sports not sponsored by the Big West.
In the realm of sports the school is referred to as "Long Beach State." The official name of Long Beach State sports teams is "The 49ers" in honor of the year the university was founded and for the prospectors of the California Gold Rush one hundred years before then. Unofficially, "The Beach" is used to refer to Long Beach State and its sports teams as it is the only university on the West Coast with the word "Beach" in its name. One can see the cheer "Go Beach!" written on many CSULB products around campus and on the large water tower near the entrance to the campus.
The school colors have been black and gold since 2000, when they were changed by a student referendum (after George Allen changed the football uniform colors) from the original brown and gold.
Main article: List of California State University, Long Beach people
CSULB has more than 286,000 alumni as of 2014.
Alumni have written, acted and directed screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent. David Twohy (BA) co-wrote the screenplay for the Academy Award winning film The Fugitive.Linda Woolverton (BA 1974) wrote the screenplays for the Academy Award-winning,Disney animated films Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King, and the live-action 2010 film Alice in Wonderland directed by Oscar-nominated director Tim Burton and starring Oscar-nominated actor Johnny Depp. J. F. Lawton (BA) wrote the screenplay to Pretty Woman, starring the Oscar-winning actress Julia Roberts. Mark Steven Johnson (BA 1989) has co-written and directed the films Daredevil, starring Oscar-winning actor Ben Affleck, and Ghost Rider, starring Oscar-winning actor Nicolas Cage. Actor Crispin Alapag notably on Big Time In Hollywood FL, Ray Donovan, General Hospital and VR Troopers Power Rangers.
Former students have won at least five Academy Awards. Steven Spielberg (Class of 1969, BA 2002) won two Oscars for Best Directing for Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan and has directed a number of other successful movies such as Jaws, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, and Jurassic Park. Former industrial design major John Dykstra, who has been nominated five times for Academy Awards, won two Oscars for his special effects work on the George Lucas film Star Wars and the Sam Raimi film Spider-Man 2. Deborah L. Scott (BA) won an Oscar for costume design for the James Cameron film Titanic.
Emmy Award-nominated director Chris Carter (BA 1979) created the series The X-Files, which garnered several awards during its nine seasons on television. Former student Steve Martin, whose philosophy classes at the university inspired him to become a professional comedian, is an Emmy Award winner and a Disney Legend.
Alumni and former students have also participated in the world of sports. Jason Giambi, Evan Longoria, Troy Tulowitzki, Harold Reynolds, Jered Weaver, and Steve Trachsel have all been selected to play in the Major League Baseball All Stars games. Matt Duffy won the World Series with the 2014 San Francisco Giants and continues to play third base for the Tampa Bay Rays. Golfer Mark O'Meara (BA 1980) won the Masters Tournament and The Open Championship.Craig Hodges is a two-time NBA Champion, Terrell Davis is a two-time Super Bowl champion and Billy Parks played five seasons in the NFL. DiverPat McCormick won four gold medals in two consecutive Olympics (Helsinki and Melbourne), and Misty May-Treanor (BS 2002) won three gold medals in women's beach volleyball in three other consecutive Olympics (Athens, Beijing, and London). High Jumper Dwight Stones set the World Record while a student at Cal State Long Beach, in addition to winning the bronze medal at both the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich and 1976 in Montreal. Track and Field athlete Bill Green (BA 1984) set the United States Record three times in the hammer throw, and placed 5th at the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles.
Former students Karen Carpenter and Richard Carpenter (Class of 1972, Honorary Doctorate 2000) of The Carpenters are the namesakes of the Carpenter Performing Arts Center, a 1,065-seat performance hall on the campus of the university that also houses an exhibit on the Carpenters. Richard Carpenter's college instructor and choir director Frank Pooler inspired him in choral arrangement, and both Karen and Richard participated in Pooler's choir. Pooler also introduced Richard to fellow undergraduate and future song-writing collaborator John Bettis. Another undergraduate, Wesley Jacobs, would join the Carpenters as a musical instrumentalist. The Carpenters sold over 100 million records, won three Grammy Awards out of eighteen nominations, and created numerous gold and platinumalbums.
- ^"California State University At Long Beach, California | Logistics & Marine Terminal Operations Education". EduMaritime.com. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
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Not to be confused with Berkeley College, Berkeley College (Yale University), or Berklee College of Music.
|University of California (1868-1958)|
|Motto||Fiat lux (Latin)|
Motto in English
|Let there be light|
|Established||March 23, 1868 (1868-03-23)|
|Endowment||$4.3 billion (2017)|
|Chancellor||Carol T. Christ|
|Students||41,910 (fall 2017)|
|Undergraduates||30,574 (fall 2017)|
|Postgraduates||11,336 (fall 2017)|
|Location||Berkeley, California, U.S.|
|Colors||Berkeley Blue, California Gold|
|Athletics||NCAA Division I FBS – Pac-12|
|Mascot||Oski the Bear|
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California. Founded in 1868, Berkeley is the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. It is often ranked among the best universities in the world and the top public university in the United States.
Established in 1868 as the University of California, resulting from the merger of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, Berkeley offers approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. The Dwinelle Bill of March 5, 1868 (California Assembly Bill No. 583) stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and profession[al] pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". In the 1960s, Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students.
Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities and continues to have very high research activity, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. It also co-manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories -- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory -- and is home to many world-renowned research institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Berkeley also offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center, the top hospital in California, which is also part of the UC system.
Berkeley alumni, faculty and researchers include 99 Nobel laureates (including 34 alumni). They have also won 9 Wolf Prizes, 13 Fields Medals (including 3 alumni medalists), 23 Turing Awards (including 11 alumni awardees), 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals (117 gold, 51 silver and 39 bronze). Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the "father of the atomic bomb", led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. Nobel laureate Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron, based on which UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, have discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world.Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements (113 to 118).
For 2017–18, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Berkeley 5th in the world and 1st among public universities. Berkeley is also ranked 18th internationally among research universities in theTimes Higher Education World University Rankings, 6th in the 2017 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings. It is additionally ranked 4th internationally (1st among public universities) by U.S. News & World Report.
Main article: History of the University of California, Berkeley
In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Because it lacked sufficient funds to operate, it eventually merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state.
Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes.
Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings, and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments.
In 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, continued to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communistloyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed; ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay. In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.
Berkeley gained worldwide reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the highly publicized People's Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted. Then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus "...a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants". Modern students at Berkeley are less politically active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives. Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1.
In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was founded on the Berkeley campus at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians -- Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore and Isadore M. Singer -- and with the support of the National Science Foundation. The institute was later moved to the Berkeley Hills. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.
Entering 21st century, as state funding declined, Berkeley turned to private sources: BP donated $400 million over 10 years to develop biofuels, the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million to endow 100 faculty chairs, the Simons Foundation gave $60 million to establish the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing, and, in 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged $600 million (shared with Stanford and UCSF) to establish the BioHub. The 2008–13 Campaign for Berkeley raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors.
The original name University of California was frequently shortened to California or Cal. UC Berkeley's athletic teams date to this time and so are referred to as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or just Cal. Today, the term "University of California" refers to the statewide school system of which UC Berkeley is a part. The university discourages referring to the University of California, Berkeley as UCB, University of California at Berkeley, Cal Berkeley, U.C. Berkeley, and UC-Berkeley. Berkeley is unaffiliated with the Berklee College of Music or Berkeley College.
Originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Berkeley's ROTC program was established and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, who graduated with a B.A. in 1922. Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from Berkeley's ROTC program, earning B.A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, respectively. In 1926, future fleet admiralChester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. During World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944, more than 1,000 Berkeley students were enrolled in the V-12 Navy College Training Program and naval training school for diesel engineering. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962.
Various human and animal rights groups have conflicted with Berkeley. Native Americans conflicted with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.Animal-rights activists have threatened faculty members using animals for research. The school's response to tree sitters protesting construction caused controversy in the local community.
On May 1, 2014, Berkeley was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. The investigation comes after 31 female students made three federal complaints: first, a Clery Act complaint was filed in May 2013 and then after a lack of response from the University a second Clery Act Complaint and Title IX complaint were filed on February 26, 2014. Investigations have continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured staff.
Berkeley is a large, primarily residential research university with a majority of enrollments in undergraduate programs but also offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program. The university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since 1949. The university is one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar, (the other is UC Merced). Berkeley offers 106 Bachelor's degrees, 88 Master's degrees, 97 research-focused doctoral programs and 31 professionally focused graduate degrees. The university awarded 7,565 Bachelor's, 2,610 Master's or Professional and 930 Doctoral degrees in 2013–2014.
Berkeley's 130-plus academic departments and programs are organized into 14 colleges and schools in addition to UC Berkeley Extension. Colleges are both undergraduate and graduate, while Schools are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors, minors, or courses.
Berkeley does not have a medical school, but the university offers the UC Berkeley – UCSF Joint Medical Program with the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), a standalone medical school that is also part of the University of California. The institutions also share the UC Berkeley - UCSF Bioengineering Graduate Program. Berkeley and UCSF have a long history of affiliation in medical research and are the two oldest campuses in the UC system. UCSF manages the UCSF Medical Center, the top-ranked hospital in California.
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a focus on the arts and sciences with a high level of co-existence in undergraduate and graduate programs. Freshman admission is selective but there are high levels of transfer-in. 107 Bachelor's degrees are offered across the Haas School of Business (1), College of Chemistry (5), College of Engineering (20), College of Environmental Design (4), College of Letters and Science (67), College of Natural Resources (10), and other individual majors (2). The most popular majors are Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Political Science, Molecular and Cell Biology, Environmental Science, and Economics.
Requirements for undergraduate degrees come from four sources: the University of California system, the Berkeley campus, the college or school, and the department. These requirements include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment (typically fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT), completing coursework on "American History and Institutions" before or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an "American Cultures Breadth" class at Berkeley, as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the department and school. Three-hour final examinations are required in most undergraduate classes and take place over a week following the last day of instruction in mid-December for the Fall semester and in mid-May for the Spring semester.Academic grades are reported on a five-letter scale (A,B,C,D,F) with grade points being modified by three-tenths of point for pluses and minuses. Requirements for academic honors are specified by individual schools and colleges, scholarly prizes are typically awarded by departments, and students are elected to honor societies based on these organizations' criteria.
Graduate and professional programs
Berkeley has a "comprehensive" graduate program with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, but no medical school. The university offers graduate degrees in Master's of Art, Master's of Science, Master's of Fine Art, and Ph.D.s in addition to professional degrees such as the Juris Doctor and Master of Business Administration. The university awarded 887 doctoral degrees and 2,506 Master's degrees in 2012. Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. Most graduate students are supported by fellowships, teach assistantships, or research assistantships. The 2010 United States National Research Council Rankings identified UC Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral programs in the nation. UC Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking include Agricultural and Resource Economics, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Science, English, Epidemiology, Geography, German, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, and Development, Physics, Plant Biology, and Political Science. UC Berkeley was also the #1 recipient of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships between 2001 and 2010, with 1,333 awards.
Faculty and research
Main articles: List of UC Berkeley faculty; Research centers and laboratories at UC Berkeley; and List of Nobel laureates associated with University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley is a research university with a "very high" level of research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Berkeley spent $789 million on research and development (R&D). There are 1,620 full-time and 500 part-time faculty members dispersed among more than 130 academic departments and more than 80 interdisciplinary research units. The current faculty includes 235 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, 3 Fields Medal winners, 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 73 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 149 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 8 Nobel Prize winners, 4 Pulitzer Prize winners, 125 Sloan Fellows, 7 Wolf Prize winners and 1 Pritzker Prize winner. 99 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, alumni or researchers, the most of any public university in the United States and third most of any university in the world.
Main article: University of California, Berkeley Library System
Berkeley's 32 libraries tie together to make the fourth largest academic library in the United States surpassed only by Harvard University Library, Yale University Library and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. However, considering the relative sizes and ages of these University libraries, Berkeley's collections have been growing about as fast as those at Harvard and Yale combined: specifically, 1.8 times faster than Harvard, and 1.9 times faster than Yale. In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library in North America based on various statistical measures of quality. As of 2006, Berkeley's library system contains over 11 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles. The libraries together cover over 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land and form one of the largest library complexes in the world. Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections are housed in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Library, with holdings of over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictorial items, maps and more, maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America. The Bancroft Library also houses The Mark Twain Papers, The Oral History Center, the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri and the University Archives.
Rankings and reputation
Berkeley was ranked as the sixth most reputed global university by the Times Higher Education. The reputation rankings, based on a survey of more than 10,000 academics worldwide, are just six years old and this is the sixth time Berkeley has placed in the "elite six" along with Harvard, MIT, Stanford, Cambridge and Oxford.
|Rank||2018 QS World Ranking by Subject|
|4||Art and Humanities (OVERALL)|
|8||Engineering and Technology (OVERALL)|
|4||Computer and Information System|
|2||Civil and Structural Engineering|
|3||Electronic and Electrical Engineering|
|=4||Mechanical Aeronautical & Manufacturing|
|7||Natural Sciences (OVERALL)|
|5||Physics & Astronomy|
|7||Social Sciences & Management (OVERALL)|
|8||Accounting & Finance|
|10||Business & Management Studies|
|=6||Communication & Media Studies|
|4||Economics & Econometrics|
|8||Education & Training|
|9||Political & International Studies|
|4||Statistics & Operations Research|
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE) for 2016–2017 ranks Berkeley 10th and recognized the institution as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford. In its 2017 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked Berkeley 4th in their Best Global University Rankings. In 2016, Berkeley was ranked 3rd in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and 28th in the 2016/17QS World University Rankings. The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) ranked the university 7th in the world based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, citations, broad impact, and patents in 2015. In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Berkeley 7th in the world based on research publication output in top tier academic journals in the life sciences, chemistry, earth and environmental sciences and physical sciences based on publication data from 2015.
The 2016 U.S. News & World Report "Best Colleges" report ranked Berkeley first among public universities and 20th among national universities.Washington Monthly ranked Berkeley 7th among national universities in 2016, with criteria based on research, community service, and social mobility. The Money Magazine Best Colleges ranking for 2015 ranked Berkeley 9th in the United States based on educational quality, affordability and alumni earnings. For 2015 Kiplinger ranked Berkeley the 4th best-value public university in the nation for in-state students, and 6th for out-of-state students. The 2016 Forbes America's Top Colleges report ranked Berkeley 40th among all universities and liberal arts colleges in the United States.
In 2014, The Daily Beast's Best Colleges report ranked Berkeley 11th in the country. The 2013 Top American Research Universities report by the Center for Measuring University Performance ranked Berkeley 8th over-all, 5th in resources, faculty, and education, 9th in resources and education, and 1st in education. Berkeley was listed as a "Public Ivy" in Richard Moll's 1985 Public Ivies.
Discoveries and innovation
A number of significant inventions and discoveries have been made by the Berkeley faculty and researchers:
- Antimalarial medication - Jay Keasling creates affordable malarial drug 2006.
- Atomic bomb - J. Robert Oppenheimer professor of physics at UC Berkeley was the wartime director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project.
- Carbon 14 & Photosynthesis - Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben first discovered carbon 14 in 1940, and Nobel laureate Melvin Calvin and his colleges used carbon 14 as a molecular tracer to reveal the carbon assimilation path in photosynthesis, known as Calvin cycle.
- Carcinogens - Identified chemicals that damage DNA. The Ames test was described in a series of papers in 1973 by Bruce Ames and his group at the University.
- Chemical Elements - 16 elements have been discovered at Berkeley (astatine, neptunium, plutonium, curium, americium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, lawrencium, dubnium, seaborgium, technetium, and molybdenum).
- CRISPR gene editing - Jennifer Doudna discovers a precise and inexpensive way for manipulating DNA in human cells.
- Cyclotron - Ernest O. Lawrence created a particle accelerator in 1934, and was awarded the Nobel Physics Prize in 1939.
- Dark energy - Saul Perlmutter and a lot of other people in the Supernova Cosmology Project discover the universe is expanding because of dark energy 1998.
- Flu vaccine - Wendell M. Stanley and collegus discovered the vaccine in the 1940s.
- Hydrogen bomb - Edward Teller, the father of hydrogen bomb, was a professor at Berkeley and a researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory & the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
- Immunotherapy of cancer - James P. Allison discovers and develops monoclonal antibody therapy that uses the immune system to combat cancer 1992-1995.
- Keck Telescope - Jerry Nelson helped build one of the world's largest telescopes in 1992.
- Molecular clock - Allan Wilson discovery in 1967.
- Oncogene - Peter Duesberg discovers first cancer causing gene in a virus 1970's.
- Peptoid - Ronald Zuckermann co-invents peptoids, and invents peptoid nanosheet.
- Telomerase - Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak discover enzyme that promotes cell division and growth 1985.
- Vitamin E - Gladys Anderson Emerson isolates Vitamin E in a pure form in 1952.
Computer & Applied Sciences
Companies & Entrepreneurship
Main article: List of companies founded by UC Berkeley alumni
UC Berkeley alumni and faculty have founded a large number of companies, some of which are shown below. UC Berkeley has often been cited as one of the universities that have produced most entrepreneurs.
- Apple, 1976, co-founder Steve Wozniak (B.S).
- eBay, 1995, founder Pierre Omidyar (Attendee).
- Gap Inc., 1969, co-founder Donald Fisher (B.S).
- HTC Corportion, 1997, co-founder Cher Wang (B.A).
- Intel, 1968, co-founders Gordon Moore (B.S) and Andy Grove (PhD).
- Mozilla Corporation, 2005, co-founder Mitchell Baker (B.A, J.D).
- Myspace, 2003, co-founder Tom Anderson (B.A).
- Renaissance Technologies, 1982, founder James Simons (PhD).
- Rotten Tomatoes, 1998, founders Senh Duong (B.A), Patrick Y. Lee (B.A) and Stephen Wang (B.A).
- SanDisk, 1988, co-founder Sanjay Mehrotra (B.S, M.S).
- Softbank, 1981, founder Masayoshi Son (B.A).
- Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founder Bill Joy (M.S).
- Tesla, 2003, co-founder Marc Tarpenning (B.S).
- VMware, 1998, co-founders Diane Greene (M.S) and Mendel Rosenblum (PhD).
Main article: Campus of the University of California, Berkeley
The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately 1,232 acres (499 ha), though the "central campus" occupies only the low-lying western 178 acres (72 ha) of this area. Of the remaining acres, approximately 200 acres (81 ha) are occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; other facilities above the main campus include the Lawrence Hall of Science and several research units, notably the Space Sciences Laboratory, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, an undeveloped 800-acre (320 ha) ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Garden and a recreation center in Strawberry Canyon. Portions of the mostly undeveloped, eastern area of the campus are actually within the City of Oakland; these portions extend from the Claremont Resort north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park.