Wildlife Conservation is the practising of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat. Wildlife plays an important role in balancing the environment and provides stability to different natural processes of nature. The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and also to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness for humans and other species alike. Many nations have government agencies and NGO's dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent non-profit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.
According to the National Wildlife Federation(NWF), wildlife in the United States gets a majority of their funding through appropriations from the federal budget, annual federal and state grants, and financial efforts from programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program, Wetlands Reserve Program and Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program. Furthermore, a substantial amount of funding comes from the state through the sale of hunting/fishing licenses, game tags, stamps, and excise taxes from the purchase of hunting equipment and ammunition, which collects around $200 million annually.
Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living species that is in the danger of becoming extinct because the species has a very low or falling population, or because they are threatened by the varying environmental or prepositional parameters.
Major dangers to wildlife
Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the past. Habitat loss due to destruction, fragmentation and degradation of habitat is the primary threat to the survival of wildlife.
- Climate change: Global warming is making hot days hotter, rainfall and flooding heavier, hurricanes stronger and droughts more severe. This intensification of weather and climate extremes will be the most visible impact of global warming in our everyday lives. It is also causing dangerous changes to the landscape of our world, adding stress to wildlife species and their habitat. Since many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes. Hibernatingmammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. Natural phenomena like floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires.
- Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem.
- Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. Pesticides and toxic chemical being widely used, making the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents.
- Over exploitation is the over use of wildlife and plant species by people for food, clothing, pets, medicine, sport and many other purposes. People have always depended on wildlife and plants for food, clothing, medicine, shelter and many other needs. But today we are taking more than the natural world can supply. The danger is that if we take too many individuals of a species from their natural environment, the species may no longer be able to survive. The loss of one species can affect many other species in an ecosystem. The hunting, trapping, collecting and fishing of wildlife at unsustainable levels is not something new. The passenger pigeon was hunted to extinction, early in the last century, and over-hunting nearly caused the extinction of the American bison and several species of whales.
- Deforestation: Humans are continually expanding and developing, leading to an invasion of wildlife habitats. As humans continue to grow they clear forested land to create more space. This stresses wildlife populations as there are fewer homes and food sources to survive off of.
- Population: The increasing population of human beings is the major threat to wildlife. More people on the globe means more consumption of food, water and fuel, therefore more waste is generated. Major threats to wildlife are directly related to increasing population of human beings. Low population of humans results in less disturbance to wildlife.
Wildlife conservation as a government involvement
In 1972, the Government of India enacted a law called the Wild Life (Protection) Act. In America, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 protects some U.S. species that were in danger from over exploitation, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) works to prevent the global trade of wildlife, but there are many species that are not protected from being illegally traded or being over-harvested. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources" (IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)" The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions." This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities. It even includes a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption and are therefore endangered by over fishing. The main sections are as follows:
- The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement:
- Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems.
- Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna.
- Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.
- Priorities for national action:
- A framework for national and sub-national conservation strategies.
- Policy making and the integration of conservation and development.
- Environmental planning and rational use allocation.
- Priorities for international action:
- International action: law and assistance.
- Tropical forests and dry lands.
- A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas.
- Tropical forests
- Deserts and areas subject to desertification.
As major development agencies became discouraged with the public sector of environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support towards the “private sector” or non-government organizations (NGOs). In a World Bank Discussion Paper it is made apparent that “the explosive emergence of nongovernmental organizations” was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO support, the U.S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and 1986 “earmarking U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds for biodiversity”. From 1990 moving through recent years environmental conservation in the NGO sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact of USAID given towards the “Environment and Natural Resources”. After the terror attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of former President Bush’s War on Terror, maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural resources became a “priority” to “prevent international tensions” according to the Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002 and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act. Furthermore, in 2002 U.S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act.
Active non-government organizations
Many NGOs exist to actively promote, or be involved with wildlife conservation:
- The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.
- World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on the issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting around 1300 conservation and environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with approximately 60% of its funding coming from voluntary donations by private individuals. 45% of the fund's income comes from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.
- Wildlife Conservation Society
- Audubon Society
- Traffic (conservation programme)
- Born Free Foundation
- Save Cambodia's Wildlife
- WildEarth Guardians
Conservation of Nature refers to the preservation of resources that are produced naturally. These include water, sunlight, atmosphere, minerals, land, vegetation and animals. Many of these resources are depleting at a rapid pace due to over utilization. The importance of conservation of nature must be understood and steps must be taken to ensure the ecological balance. Conservation of nature implies the conservation of resources that are formed naturally, without any human intervention. The importance of conservation of natural resources has been stressed upon often enough as it is essential for maintaining a balanced environment on earth. Here are essays of varying lengths on the topic to help you with it in your exam.
Essay on Conservation of Nature
Conservation of Nature Essay 1 (200 words)
Conservation of nature is basically the conservation of resources such as air, water, sunlight, land, vegetation, animal life and minerals. All these resources are obtained from nature without any interference from the mankind. These resources are further employed to produce various things that make the lives of human beings as well as other living beings comfortable.
Natural resources are broadly categorized into renewable resources and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are the ones that replenish naturally. These include air, water and sunlight. The use of these resources is encouraged over the non-renewable resources as the latter do not replenish and are fast depleting.
Conservation of nature is an issue that must be taken seriously. While the governments of different countries are employing various means to conserve nature, individuals must also come forward to contribute their bit in this direction. Some of the ways in which the common man can help in the conservation of nature is by planting trees, restricting the use of paper, stopping wastage of water and electricity, stopping ill practices such as hunting of animals, and employing rain water harvesting systems. It does not take much to put the above mentioned ideas to practice. However, if each one of us contributes our bit to it, the difference it will bring about would be tremendous.
Conservation of Nature Essay 2 (300 words)
Nature fulfils our basic requirement to live by providing us air, water, land, sunlight and plants. These resources are further used to manufacture various things that make life more convenient and comfortable for the human beings. Unfortunately, man has grown so engrossed in over-utilizing these resources to invent newer things that he has almost forgotten the importance of conserving them. As a result, many of these resources are depleting at a fast pace and if it continues this way then the survival of human beings as well as other living beings on Earth would become very difficult.
Conservation of nature means the preservation of forests, land, water bodies and conservation of resources such as minerals, fuels, natural gases, etc. to ensure that all these continue to be available in abundance. There are many ways in which the common man can help in the conservation of nature. Here are some of those that can be done easily and can make a huge difference:
Water must be used wisely else that day wouldn’t be far when we will have to pay a huge price for it. Turn off the tap while brushing your teeth, limit the number of showers, use the waste RO water to water the plants or clean the house so as to ensure wise usage of water.
- Limit Usage of Electricity
Limiting the usage of electricity is also essential for the conservation of nature. Simple things such as turning off the electric appliances when they are not in use and switching to energy saving lights, such as LED lights, to save electricity can help in this direction.
- Plant Trees and Grow Vegetables
It is advised to plant as many trees as possible to make up for those that are cut each day. Also grow vegetables at home to restrict the usage of chemical fertilizers used in professional farming.
Besides these, people can do their bit by limiting the usage of paper, employing rain water harvesting system, restricting usage of cars and lastly by spreading awareness about the conservation of nature.
Conservation of Nature Essay 3 (400 words)
Nature has given us several gifts such as air, water, land, sunlight, minerals, plants and animals. All these gifts of nature make our planet a place worth living. Survival on Earth would not be possible without any of these. Now, while these natural resources are present on Earth in abundance, unfortunately the requirement of most of these has increased tremendously over the centuries due to growth in human population. Many of the natural resources are being consumed at a far greater speed as compared to their rate of production. There is thus a need for conservation of nature and the natural resources it offers. Here is a look at some of the ways in which these resources can be conserved:
- Reduce Water Consumption
Water is available in abundance on Earth and this is one of the reasons people do not think much before using it. However, if we continue to use it at this pace we may not be left with as much of it in the future. Simple things such as turning the tap off while brushing, using washing machine only when its tub is full, using the left over water in the bottles to water the plants, etc can help in this direction.
- Reduce Usage of Electricity
Energy saved is energy produced. It is thus suggested to restrict the usage of electricity. Simple practices such as turning off the lights before leaving your room, turning off the electric appliances after use and switching to energy saving fluorescent or LED bulbs can make a difference.
- Restrict Usage of Paper
Paper is made from trees. Using more paper means encouraging deforestation which is one of the main causes of concern in today’s time. Make sure you use only as much paper as is required. Stop taking print outs and use e-copies instead to do your bit.
- Use Newer Agricultural Methods
The government must teach methods such as mixed cropping, crop rotation and appropriate use of pesticides, insecticides, manures, bio fertilizers and organic fertilizers to the farmers.
- Spread Awareness
Spreading awareness about the conservation of nature and the methods to be used for the same is very important. It can be achieved only when more and more people understand its importance and the ways in which they can help.
Apart from this, it is important to plant more and more tress, contribute towards lowering the air pollution by using shared transport and employing rain water harvesting systems to conserve nature.
Conservation of Nature Essay 4 (500 words)
Conservation of nature refers to the conservation of all those resources that are formed naturally without any kind of help from the human beings. These include water, air, sunlight, land, forests, minerals, plants as well as animals. Together, all these natural resources make life worth living on Earth. Life would not be possible without air, water, sunlight as well as other natural resources present on the planet. It is thus essential to conserve these resources in order to keep the environment intact. Here is a look at the kind of natural resources present on Earth and the ways to conserve these:
Types of Natural Resources
- Renewable Resources: These are resources such as air, water and sunlight that replenish naturally.
- Non-Renewable Resources: These are resources like fossil fuels and minerals that do not replenish or form very slowly.
- Biotic: These come from living beings and organic material like plants and animals.
- Abiotic: These are derived from non-living things and non-organic material. These include air, water and land as well as metals like iron, copper and silver.
Natural resources are also divided into categories such as actual resources, reserve resources, stock resources and potential resources based on their development stage.
Methods for Conservation of Nature
Conservation of nature is a subject that requires serious attention. Most of the resources of nature are depleting at a fast rate. This is because the demand of these resources is high while the rate of their formation is low. However, it needs to be understood that nature has given us abundance of all that we require. We require using the available natural resources wisely and must employ the below mentioned methods to conserve these:
Water and electricity are two things that are being wasted the most. It is essential to understand the importance of saving both these. Use only as much water as you require. Same goes for electricity. Use the electric appliances wisely and turn them off when they are not in use. Similarly, the use of other resources such as paper, petroleum and gases must also be restricted.
There are a lot of things such as paper, cardboard, metal, tin, aluminium foil, glass bottles, plastic containers as well as water that can be recycled and reused. The government is using methods to pick these things from the waste to recycle them. You can also do your bit by employing rain water harvesting system to reuse water.
Plant more and more trees to make up for those that are cut for manufacturing paper, furniture and other items made of wood. Also ensure cleanliness around your area. Do not throw waste products in water bodies and elsewhere.
Lastly, spread as much awareness as you can about the importance of conservation of nature.
The consumption of natural resources has far exceeded their production. It is the duty of each one of us to stop wasting these gifts of nature and start using them wisely so as to maintain ecological balance on Earth. The aforementioned methods should help in this direction.
Conservation of Nature Essay 5 (600 words)
Conservation of nature is basically the conservation of all those resources that nature has gifted to the mankind. These include minerals, water bodies, land, sunlight and atmosphere. It also includes the preservation of flora and fauna. All these help in creating a balanced environment that it fit for the survival of human beings as well as other living organisms on Earth. Conservation of nature is thus vital.
Natural resources have been categorized based on their characteristics. Here is a look at this classification, the ways employed to conserve each of these and the related concerns.
Classification of Natural Resources
Natural resources are broadly classified based on their capacity to renew, source of origin and stage of development. These are further divided into sub categories. Read on to learn about these in detail:
Certain resources are renewable while others are non-renewable. Here is a detailed look at both these categories:
- Renewable Resources: These are the resources that replenish naturally. Some of these include air, water, land and sunlight.
- Non-Renewable Resources: These resources either form at a very slow speed or do not form naturally. Minerals and fossil fuels are some of the examples of this category.
Based on their origin, natural resources are divided into two types:
- Abiotic: These are those resources that come from non living things and non organic material. Few examples of this type of natural resources include water, air, land and metals such as iron, copper, gold and silver.
- Biotic: These resources are derived from living beings and organic material such as plants and animals. This category also includes fossil fuels as they are obtained from decayed organic matter.
On the basis of their stage of development, natural resources are categorized in the following way:
- Actual Resources: The development of these resources is dependent on the availability of technology and the cost involved. These are used in the present times.
- Reserve Resources: That part of the actual resource that can successfully be developed and used in future is known as reserve resource.
- Potential Resources: These are the resources that exist in certain region but require some work before they can actually be put to work.
- Stock Resources: These are those resources that are surveyed but cannot be put to use because of lack of technology.
Methods for Conservation of Nature
Whether renewable or non renewable, biotic or non-biotic, the resources of nature must be conserved. Here are some of the methods that the government and individuals should employ for conservation of nature:
- Over utilization of natural resources must be stopped. The available resources must be used wisely without any wastage.
- Hunting of wild animals must be stopped for the preservation of wild life.
- Farmers must be taught the method of mixed cropping, use of fertilizers, insecticide, pesticide, and crop rotation. The use of manures, organic fertilizers and biofertilizers should be encouraged.
- Deforestation should be controlled.
- Rain water harvesting systems should be installed.
- The use of renewable resources such as solar, hydro and wind power must be encouraged.
- Water must be recycled for using in agricultural processes.
- Car-pooling is a good way to bring down the consumption of fossil fuels.
- Restrict the use of paper and encourage recycling it.
- Save electricity by replacing old light bulbs with energy saving fluorescent bulbs. Also, turn off the light and electronic items when you do not require them.
Conservation of nature is important to ensure a balanced environment. However, sadly enough many natural resources are depleting at a fast rate. Each one must contribute his/ her bit towards conservation of nature by employing the above mentioned methods.
Slogans on Nature